Graeme Skinner
Under construction
as of 10 July 2014 at
as last updated in April 2014, can for a short while still be consulted here
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians A-B
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians C-D
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians E-G
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians H-J
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians K-L
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians M-N
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians O-R
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians S-T
A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians U-Z
An organisational register of colonial Australian music and musicians A-Z
Chronological checklist
A chronological checklist of colonial compositions 1788-1840
A chronological checklist of colonial compositions 1841-1850
A chronological checklist of colonial compositions 1851-1855
A chronological checklist of colonial compositions 1856-1860
A chronological checklist of colonial compositions 1861-1865
A chronological checklist of colonial compositions 1866-1870
Other content
A bibliography of colonial Australian music
Readings in colonial Australian music history
Nineteenth-century musical sources online
Searching for Stephen Marsh's The Gentleman in Black
1888 Melbourne Centennial Exhibition Orchestral Series
John Onions
convict musician
George Skinner
{fl. 1844-48}
Sydney Catch Club
Emile Coulon
Windsor Band
A lost colonial opera archive
Beethoven in Australia 1827


A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians: K-L


This register complements and updates data available in my
doctoral thesis. It serves as a checklist of vocalists, instrumentalists, dancers, conductors, orchestral players, bandsmen and bandmasters, professors of music, singing and dance, teachers, composers, arrangers, orchestrators, songwriters, librettists, lyricists, music publishers, musicsellers, instrument tuners, repairers, makers, and builders, music reviewers and journalists, music memorialists and historians, writers and lecturers on music, members of musical associations and societies, professional and amateur, agents and impresarios, venue owners and managers, entrepreneurs, active in Australia, whether in public or private, between 1788 and approximately 1860. However, later individuals are also gradually being included, with a view to covering the whole pre-Federation period (to the end of 1900). Entries on more tractable minor figures tend to be far more complete than on major figures who await fuller biographies.

These are the names that my initial scans of the period have produced. But I'd be pleased to hear from anyone who knows of others.


Graeme Skinner, “A biographical register of colonial Australian musicians: K-L”, Austral Harmony (a resource for music and musicians in colonial Australia), @; accessed [INSERT DATE]

- K -


Flute player (New Queen’s Theatre)
Active Adelaide, 1848

References: [Advertisement], South Australian (29 February 1848), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian (6 October 1848), 3:



Pianist, composer
Active Melbourne, 1890s

References: “Marriages”, The Sydney Morning Herald (9 June 1881), 1:; [Advertisement], The Argus (24 May 1894), 8:

Works: The Carnival March (composed by Emilie Kaeppel. Dedicated to the Old Colonists of Victoria) in The Tatler [London] (21 May 1898), 25-30

Resources: Ann G. Smith, “Kaeppel, Carl Henry (1887-1946)”, Australian Dictionary of Biography 9 (1983)



KAHN, Esther
Composer, violinist (pupil of Josef Kretschmann), music therapist
Born London, 17 February 1877
Active Sydney, by 1890
Died ? Sydney, 1963


KAHN, Heinrich A. (Harry)
Died May 1929

References: “COMPLIMENTARY CONCERT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (12 April 1890), 8:; “New Music”, Australian Town and Country Journal (19 May 1894), 9:; “NEW AUSTRALIAN MUSIC”, Freeman’s Journal (26 May 1894), 16:; “PERSONAL”, The Brisbane Courier (31 October 1911), 9:

Resources: Biography (1894):;



Master of the band of the 3rd Regiment (Buffs), vocalist, violinist, violoncellist, composer
Born Dublin, Ireland, 23 October 1793
Arrived Sydney (with Buffs Head Quarters), 29 August 1823 (per Commodore Hayes, from England)
Departed Sydney, 28 January 1827 (per Woodford and Speke, for India)

Bandsman 3rd Regiment (Buffs)

Summary: A considerable amount of work has been done on Kavanagh by family and military historians, especially those whose chief interest is his son, Thomas Henry Kavanagh of Lucknow, VC, hero of the Indian Mutiny. Thomas Henry‘s biographer, D. H. Parry, supplied this information: “The year of grace 1821, which saw the death of the great Napoleon, witnessed the birth of a son to Bandmaster Kavanagh of the 3rd Buffs, at the town of Mullingar, in County Westmeath Ireland.” Records confirm that the birth took place on 15 July 1821, to Thomas Kavanagh and his wife Catherine Murphy (b.19 March 1899 at Borris Carlow). Thomas Henry’s autobiography, How I Won the Victoria Cross (London: Ward and Lock, 1860), contains no reference to his childhood or parentage, except to say, in 1859, that he had been away from Europe for 30 years, suggesting he joined Kavanagh senior in India around 1829. Registration of Thomas senior’s birth has been plausibly traced to 23 October 1793, Dublin, Old St. Mary’s Parish, which at least fits with the date of his first mention in 3rd Buffs records as a drummer boy in 1804. Kavanagh (also Kavenagh, Kavannah, Kavannagh, Cavenagh) arrived in Sydney with Buffs’ Headquarters, on 29 August 1823, and disembarked on the following afternoon, the troops marching “to their quarters in the Barracks, the full Band of the 3d Regiment playing the whole of the way.” I have found no specific mention of the band in the press during 1824; however, they were evidently well known by the time of the Anniversary Dinner in January 1825, when it was reported: “The Band of the 3d (or Buffs) Regt, attended, and performed, in their usual masterly and exhilirating Style, several delightful airs and melodies.” According to regimental records, Kavanagh‘s band in Australia consisted of himself (“sarjeant”), and 10 rank-and-file musicians: Zachariah Berry, John Blake, William Booth, William Kavanagh (Thomas's brother), Harry Keyser, Henry Lincoln, John May, Thomas Mylett, John Sullivan, and Edward White. In 1825, for services at St. Philip’s Church, the Government made payment to “Serjeant Kavanagh, and others for conducting the psalmody on Sunday mornings, from 7th March, to 7th Sept.” For a Sunday service at St. James‘s in August 1826, Kavanagh’s band, and George Sippe’s band of the 57th regiment “paraded to and from the church”, and several of the bandsmen also “assisted in the choir—they performed an appropriate anthem, [on Pope’s] Vital Spark of heavenly flame, with some effect”. And, a young chorister in the Catholic Chapel at the time, Columbus Fitzpatrick late in life recollected Kavanagh’s playing a leading role, along with fellow bandmaster Joseph Reichenberg, in Catholic worship. Kavanagh’s famous advertisement of “ORIGINAL AUSTRALIAN MUSIC” first appeared in the Sydney press on 5 January 1826:

ORIGINAL AUSTRALIAN MUSIC. Dedicated, by Permission, to His Excellency Sir Thomas Brisbane, K. C. B. &c. &c. &c. and by Permission of His Honor the Lieutenant Governor. MR. KAVANAGH, Master of the Band of the 3d Regiment, begs to acquaint the Gentry of Sydney and its Environs, that he has lately composed the following Pieces, which are now submitted at his Quarters in the Military Barrack, where Copies may be had: General Ralph Darling’s Australian Slow March; General Darling’s Quick Step; Mrs. Darling’s waltz; His Honor Col. Stewart’s Slow March, Hail Australia! Sir Thomas Brisbane’s Grand Australian March; Sir Thomas Brisbane’s Grand Australian Quick March; Lady Brisbane’s Waltz; My Native Distant Home (Scotch Air); Currency Lasses; The Trumpet sounds Australia’s Fame (Song). Mr. K. in submitting to the Australian Public this Specimen of National Music, trusts he will meet with that Encouragement he will be always studious to merit.

The bravura song, The Trumpet Sounds Australia’s Fame, was performed in July at the Sydney Amateur Concerts (the complete text survives, printed in the Gazette, 26 July 1826). Later in the series, at Clarke’s benefit on 9 January 1827, “Mr. CAVANAGH was principal second violin”. The Gazette also reported a few days later: “Mr. Cavenagh, we understand, is about to have a Benefit Concert, under very distinguished patronage. As a musician, Mr. C‘s talents rate high, and his exertions, on all occasions, to please, will, we have little doubt, procure him a liberal and substantial mark of public favour. A rich and varied musical treat, we are informed, is in preparation, and some new music, vocal and instrumental, composed by Mr. Cavenagh, will be produced on this occasion.” However, the concert appears not to have taken  place (the Gazette later clarified: “Mr. Cavanagh, we understood, was about to have a Benefit Concert […]”). Kavanagh and the band departed for India, with the Buffs headquarters on the Woodford and Speke on 28 January 1827. Kavanagh was still in India in the early 1830s; at Calcutta Town Hall on St. Andrew‘s Day, 1831: “The Buffs’ band, well known for its excellence, under the guidance of Mr. Kavannah Senr., its master, were in attendance […]”. And though he is unlikely to have returned to Australia, it is possible that one of his relatives did, possibly his brother William. When a temporary Catholic chapel opened in Sydney in mid-1829, it was reported: “The music is excellent, the leader of the choir (a Mr. Cavanagh, lately arrived from Ireland) having undertaken to conduct it for twelvemonths.”

Columbus Fitzpatrick, c.1870: In 1825 there were a great number of soldiers in this country and as it happened, the Bandmaster (Mr. Cavanagh) of the 3rd Buffs was a Catholic, as also the Bandmaster (Mr. Richenberg) of the 40th Regiment, an Italian and a great musician […] and it was a common thing to have five or six clarinets, two bassoons, a serpent, two French horns, two flutes, a violincello, and first and tenor violin, and any amount of well-trained singers, all bursting forth in perfect harmony the beautiful music of our Church […] There being as I said before, two Catholic bandmasters in Sydney at that time, there was a spirit of emulation in the bands to see who could do most for the Church, and as Mr. Cavanagh the bandmaster of the Buffs was a fine singer, he gave is the benefit of his voice in addition to playing the violincello. Such choruses I have never since heard […]”

References: London, National Archives, PRO, WO12/2118: 3rd Regiment of Foot (Buffs) payrolls 1824-26; microfilm copy at SL-NSW: PRO Reel 3695; “SHIP NEWS”, The Sydney Gazette (4 September 1823), 2:; “COMMEMORATION DINNER”, The Sydney Gazette (3 February 1825), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (4 August 1825), 3:; “ECCLESIASTICAL ESTABLISHMENT”, The Sydney Gazette (3 October 1825), 1:; “PUBLIC DINNER”, The Sydney Gazette (10 November 1825), 3:; “Sydney Intelligence”, Colonial Times and Tasmanian Advertiser (2 December 1825), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (5 January 1826), 3:; [Advertisement], The Australian (5 January 1826), 1:; “THE AMATEUR CONCERT”, The Monitor (21 July 1826), 5:; “SYDNEY AMATEUR CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (22 July 1826), 3:; “THE CONCERT”, The Australian (22 July 1826), 3:; “SYDNEY AMATEUR CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (24 July 1826), 3:; [News], The Sydney Gazette (26 July 1826), 3:; [News], The Australian (23 August 1826), 3:; “Subscription Concert”, The Sydney Gazette (11 January 1827), 2:; [News], The Sydney Gazette (16 January 1827), 2:; [Editorial], The Sydney Gazette (30 January 1827), 2:; “Shipping Intelligence”, The Sydney Gazette (30 January 1827), 3:; [News], The Sydney Monitor (4 July 1829), 3:; “ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SONS OF ST. ANDREW AT THE TOWN HALL”, Calcutta Magazine and Monthly Register 25 (1832), 34:

Resources: D. H. Parry, The Victoria Cross: its heroes and their valor (London, 1898), 162:; Christopher Hibbert, The Great Mutiny: India, 1857 (London: Allen Lane, 1978), 332, described young Kavanagh at Lucknow as “a tall, muscular, talkative, ludicrously vain Irishman of thirty-six”; C. J. Duffy (ed.), Catholic religious and social life in the Macquarie era: as portrayed in the letters of Columbus Fitzpatrick (1810-1878) (Sydney: Catholic Press Newspaper Company, Ltd., 1966), 17-19; also in Patrick O’Farrell, Documents in Australian Catholic History: 1788-1883 (Sydney: G. Chapman, 1969), 32-33



KAWERAU, Frederick
Amateur vocalist, architect and surveyor
Arrived Melbourne, July 1849
Departed Melbourne, January 1869

Summary: Having arrived from Germany in July 1849, the architect Kawerau (“pronounced Carvero”) appeared in two concerts in Melbourne in December 1850. He continued to appear occasionally in concerts (for instance, in Melbourne, with Octavia Hamilton in July 1863), and in Ballarat in June 1863 he was honorary secretary of the newly formed Ballarat Vocal Union, under the leadership of AustinTurner.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (31 July 1849), 3:; “ARCHITECTURE”, The Argus (3 August 1849), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (5 December 1850), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (17 December 1850), 2:; “SOCIAL”, The Star (24 June 1863), 1s:; [Advertisement], The Argus (13 July 1863), 8:; “SHIPPING FOR THE MONTH”, Illustrated Australian News (1 February 1869), 35:; “Deaths”, The Argus (24 July 1876), 1:



KAYE, Samuel
Singing-master, professor of music, organist, music seller, organ builder, arranger, music publisher
Active Melbourne, by 1860
Departed Melbourne, after July 1876

Summary: At the time of his marriage in January 1860, Kaye was singing-master of Melbourne’s Denominational Schools. In January 1865, prior to his departure on a trip to Europe, the St. Kilda Glee and Madrigal Society, of which he was the conductor,  gave a concert in his honour. Back in Collins-Street east, Melbourne in September 1866, “Mr. David Lee and Mr. Samuel Kaye (professors of music)” opened a Pianoforte and Harmonium Warehouse. As a musical partnership, they served as conductor and organist of the Melbourne Philharmonic. They continued to run the business, Lee and Kaye, for ten years, until in 1876 Kaye sold up his personal effects and left the colony, and Allan and Co. took over the premises.  Lee and Kaye published at least two local compositions, George Allan’s song A wild night (poetry by Henry Kendall) in July 1870; and So far away (written by Emery Gould; composed by Sidonia; dedicated to to Miss Lennon, Geelong”). Kaye was also responsible for another publication, Music for the Masonic Order, being Ritual No 1 selected and arranged by Bro. Samuel Kaye (Melbourne: Masonic Musical Union, [n.d.]),

References: “MARRIAGES”, The Argus (11 January 1860), 4:; [News], The Argus (12 January 1865), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 September 1866), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (16 December 1868), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (28 July 1870), 3:; [News], The Argus (1 August 1870), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (27 December 1875), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 July 1876), 3:; “THE SCOT’S CHURCH”, The Argus (25 July 1876), 7:; “ALLAN AND CO.’S NEW MUSIC WAREHOUSE”, The Argus (5 October 1876), 10:; ? “THE MUSICAL ARTISTS’ SOCIETY OF VICTORIA”, The Argus (28 February 1887), 9:

Bibliography: W. A. Carne, A century of harmony: the official centenary history of the Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society (Melbourne: Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society, 1954);; scanned reprint, Organ Historical Trust of Australia:



KEANE, Michael
Drummer and fifer, drum major (formerly of 25th Regiment), convict
Arrived Sydney, 2 May 1820

References: “AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Of a Botany Bay Hero)”, The Australian (11 November 1826), 4:



KEARNEY, Patrick
Harp owner, ? harpist
Active Campbell Town, TAS, 1865

References: “INSOLVENT COURT”, Launceston Examiner (16 December 1865), 3:

 Associations: James Joseph Pollard, Albert Francis Weippert



KEARNS, Edward
Bandsman (12th Regiment), bandmaster (Coldstream Brass Band), composer
Regiment in Australia, 1854-67
Active Sydney, by 1861; Maitland, by 1875; Sydney, until 1895 or later

References: “CORONER’S INQUEST”, Empire (19 September 1861), 5:; [News], The Argus (6 February 1875), 7:; “VOLUNTEER PARADE”, The Maitland Mercury (14 December 1875), 2:; “NEWS OF THE DAY”, The Sydney Morning Herald (27 November 1880), 5:; “BENEFIT CONCERT AT BALMAIN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (25 June 1895), 6:

Musical works: Don’t go, Molly Darling (ballad; “music by Edward Kearns; words by F. Mears”; “especially composed for Mr. Beaumont Read of Madame Bishop’s company”):



Teacher of Pianoforte and Singing
Active Hobart, 1862

References: [Advertisement], The Mercury (7 October 1862), 1:



KEERS, Master J. R.
“The wonderful Child Violinist, the young Australian Paganini”
Active Sydney, by 1887

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (5 August 1887), 2: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (14 January 1888), 2:; “Liedertafel Smoke Concert”, The Cumberland Argus (2 March 1889), 2:; “A PROMISING VIOLINIST”, The Sydney Morning Herald (31 October 1894), 6:; “A VIOLINIST”, The Dubbo Liberal (30 January 1904), 2:; “THE KEERS PRESENTATION”, The Dubbo Liberal (18 December 1907), 2:; [Advertisement], The Register (10 April 1909), 12:



KEIDEL, A. (? Augustus)
Musician, flautist, clarinettist, bandmaster (Adelaide Amateur Brass and Reed Band)
Active Adelaide, 1848-51
? Died Ballarat, VIC, 30 July 1860, aged 45

References: [Advertisement], South Australian (29 February 1848), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian (6 October 1848), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian (13 March 1849), 3:; “AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITION”, South Australian (22 February 1850), 2:; “DECLARATION OF CONFIDENCE IN MR JOHN STEPHENS”, South Australian Register (7 March 1850), 2s:; [Advertisement], South Australian (5 July 1850), 1:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (7 April 1851), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Star (6 August 1860), 2:



Amateur tenor vocalist, music reviewer (The Argus, 1869-89)
Born London, 1831
Arrived Victoria, 1852
Died Richmond, Melbourne, 7 March 1889, aged 57

Obituary: The death of Mr Henry Keiley, which we regret to have to announce this morning, removes from journalistic and musical circles of this colony a very prominent figure. Mr Keiley, who was best known as the musical critic of The Argus, occupied that position for upwards of 20 years, enjoying during that time the entire confidence of the office, the close fellowship and goodwill of his colleagues, and the friendship of all the members of the musical profession with whom he was brought into contact. His genial and gentle personality will be much missed it is no empty compliment to his memory to say that he was always upright in giving judgment and while he had to deal with performances and appearances of all kinds of artistes, from the greatest who have visited these shores to the aspirants among our native born population, he was always careful that he criticised with dignity, praised when praise was deserved, encouraged when encouragement was necessary, and condemned when the interests of the public demanded it. He never fell into the common error of regarding criticism as an opportunity for fault-finding but, on the contrary, he placed before his readers a bright picture of the occurrence, conjoined with solid information, which rendered his notices a musical education in themselves. He was born in London in 1831, and nurtured among musical surroundings. At a very early age he was made familiar with the efforts of performers of the first rank, and during his youth, though his avocation lay in business in the city, he was always moving among musical people. He came to Victoria in 1852, and sought his fortune at Pleasant Creek (now Stawell). Afterwards, when the gold fields waned, be, in 1869, joined the staff of The Argus as musical critic. As has been said, he retained that position until his death, and the value of the work he did is appreciated by all who have studied it. Mr. Cowcn before his departure publicly expressed surprise at the high standard of musical criticism in Melbourne. It was Mr. Keiley who was entitled to the credit of having established that standard. In late years Mr. Keiley suffered much from visitations of gout, and during the currency of the Exhibition, when his labours were most arduous, he was compelled to take a rest. He did not regain strength, not ever, and died last night at 1 o’clock, after eight weeks’ illness, from congestion of the brain and gout. He was attended by Dr. Moloney and Dr. Eisner. His funeral will leave his residence, 141 Church street, Richmond, at half past 2 o clock on Saturday afternoon.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (24 November 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (20 February 1855), 7:; [Advertisement], The Argus (29 July 1869), 8:; [News], The Argus (30 July 1869), 4: ; “Deaths”, The Argus (19 April 1881), 1:; “Deaths”, The Argus (8 March 1889), 1:; “DEATH OF MR. H. KEILEY”, The Argus (8 March 1889), 7:; “A SERVICE OF SORROW”, The Argus (11 March 1889), 8:

Stage works: Alfred the Great (a dramatic & musical fancy written and arranged by Marcus Clarke and Henry Keiley [the music composed by Fred Lyster and Alfred Plumpton) (Melbourne : Nicholson & Ascherberg, [1879])



KELLERMANN, Alice (Madame)
Pianist, composer
Born Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 12 October 1858
Active Australia from 1878
Died Paris, France, 14 July 1914


Summary: Daughter of the late Chief Justice of New Caledonia, Alice Charbonnet “of the Conservatoire of Paris” (1876-77), made her Sydney debut as a pianist in April 1878. She married Australian-born violinist Frederick Kellermann junior (nephew of William Kellermann) in 1882. Though at first billing herself in Australia as Madame Charbonnet-Kellermann, later in life in Paris she reportedly preferred to be known as Mademe Kellermann. Her daughter was the Australian swimmer Annette Kellermann, and a son Maurice (b. Sydney, 1885), a violinist, settled in the USA in 1912.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (13 April 1878), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (25 April 1878), 2:; “Marriages”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 December 1882), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (12 July 1890), 12:; “MUSIC AND DRAMA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (27 June 1914), 6:; “PERSONAL”, The West Australian (26 August 1914), 6:; “MENTONE”, Brighton Southern Cross (5 September 1914), 4:

Web: Alice Charbonnet-Kellermann (Music Australia):; G. P. Walsh, Kellermann, Annette Marie Sarah (1886–1975), Australian Dictionary of Biography 9 (1983)

Selected works online:
The Duchess of York;
Christmas songs (Joyeux Noels);
Saltarella in A minor;
Le train du diable (galop de concert);
Brise de mer (grand waltz for pianoforte);
Ave Maria (with violin obligato ad lib.)



KELLERMANN, Frederick (junior)
Professor of Piano and Theory, violinist

Summary: Son of F. W. Kellermann and nephew of William Kellermann, Frederick married Alice Charbonnet on 18 December 1882.

References: “Marriages”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 December 1882), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (12 July 1890), 12:; “Deaths”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 June 1891), 1:



Instructor in Vocal and Instrumental Music
Active Sydney-Maitland, by 1853
Died Darlinghurst, Sydney, 15 June 1891, in his 71st year

Summary: “A pupil of the celebrated Mr. Staudigl of Vienna”, presumably Joseph Staudigl (1807-1861), William was in partnership with his brother Frederick (father of Frederick Kellerman junior above) as merchant traders in Sydney and Maitland by 1853. Having withdrawn from the business, Kellerman appeared in Maitland in concerts in June 1855 and advertised as a music teacher in December. Members of the Maitland Philharmonic Institute gave him a benefit concert in November 1858. Together with Dr. Charles Horn and Marmaduke Wilson, he organised a concert in “aid of the distressed in Lancashire” in August 1862. By December 1863, having meanwhile sold of his lost piano, harmonium, music, books and furniture to creditors (to be actioned in January 1864), he had relocated and was teaching again in Sydney.

References: [News], The Maitland Mercury (13 June 1855), 2:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (5 December 1855), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (18 November 1858), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (19 August 1862), 1:; “MAITLAND PHILHARMONIC INSTITUTE”, The Maitland Mercury (16 May 1861), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (29 December 1863), 1:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (9 January 1864), 2:; “Deaths”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 June 1891), 1:



Tenor vocalist
Active Sydney, 1842

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (24 May 1842), 3:



Bandsman (51st Regiment)
Departed Hobart, August 1846
Died India 1846/47

References: [News], The Courier (12 August 1846), 3:; “THE 51ST REGIMENT IN INDIA”, The Courier (15 May 1857), 2: “We regret to record that, since the arrival of the head-quarters of this fine regiment in the China and Agincourt, at Bangalore, there have been many deaths, among whom we may mention [… ] sergeant Jones (of the band,) […] Kelly (of the band,) Simpson (of the buglers) ...“



Bushranger, singer
Born Beveridge, VIC, June 1855
Executed Melbourne, 11 November 1880

July 1880: Between 12 and 1 o'clock on Sunday morning one of Mrs. Jones’s sons sang the Kelly song for the amusement of the gang, and his mother occasionally asked him to sing out louder. Most of the prisoners were then cleared from the front parlour, and the gang had a dance. They danced a set of quadrilles, and Mr. David Mortimer, brother-in-law of the school-master, furnished the music with a concertina. Ned Kelly had the girl Jones for a partner, Dan had Mrs. Jones, and Byrne and Hart, danced with male prisoners.

August 1880: Ned Kelly has been removed from Melbourne to Beech worth. On the journey he was some times rather noisy, as if wishing to direct attention to himself. He sang two bushranging songs, conversed freely stout his exploits, and pointed out different objects of interest on the way, especially in tbe neighbourhood of the Strathbogie Ranges.

Note: The Kelly song is whimsically identified as “Farewell to my home in Greta”; however, whatever the report was referring to remains a mystery.

References: “THE KELLY GANG”, Australian Town and Country Journal (10 July 1880), 6:; “THE KELLY GANG. TO THE EDITOR”, The Mercury (26 July 1880), 3:; “INTERCOLONIAL SUMMARY”, South Australian Register (7 August 1880), 2 Supplement:; [News], The Argus (1 December 1881), 7:; “THE KELLY GANG OF BUSHRANGERS”, The Advertiser (19 August 1911), 23:

Associated works: Songs of the Kelly Gang ([Hobart Town: T. W. Allen, 1879/80])

Resources: John V. Barry, Kelly, Edward (Ned) (1855-1880), Australian Dictionary of Biography 5 (1974)



Librettist, songwriter, poet
Born Ulladulla, NSW, 18 April 1839
Died Surry Hills, NSW, 1 August 1882

Summary: In addition to his major collaborations with Charles Horsley and Paolo Giorza, Kendall wrote many poems he designated as “songs”. Notably, his 1862 collection, Poems and Songs (published in Sydney by Jacob Clarke) included the “Squatter’s Song” and “Song of the Cattle Hunters”. Later collection were Leaves from Australian Forests (1869) and Songs from the Mountains (1880). In the Federation era, Alfred Hill, Christian Hellemann and Varney Monk composed and published settings of Kendall’s songs.

References: “KERRASSU. AN ABORIGINAL SONG”, Bell’s Life in Sydney (30 November 1861), 4:; “ABORIGINAL DEATH SONGS”, Clarence and Richmond Examiner (15 April 1862), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (4 May 1863), 1:; “HENRY KENDALL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (10 December 1863), 8:; [Advertisement]: “MASONIC HALL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 August 1872), 8:; “LITERATURE. Poems and Songs by Henry Kendall”, Australian Town and Country Journal (29 March 1873), 18:; “POEMS AND SONGS BY HENRY KENDALL”, Empire (31 March 1873), 4:

Works with music by colonial composers:
Silent Tears (words: Henry Kendall; “A song of affection”; “Dedicated with permission to Lady Stephen, Lyon’s Terrace, Hyde Park”) (Sydney: Peck’s Music Repository, [1859])
The Song of the Cattle Hunters (song with chorus; words: Henry Kendall; as sung by Christy’s Minstrels; dedicated to the squatters of NSW) ([Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1863]) NO COPY IDENTIFIED   
A Wild Night (poetry by Henry Kendall; the music composed expressly for and sung by Mrs. Cutter by G. B. Allen) (Melbourne: Lee & Kaye, [1870])
Euterpe (op.76: an ode to music written by Henry Kendall, composed expressly for the opening of the new town hall … by Charles Edward Horsley) (Melbourne: W. H. Glen, [1870)
Honor the Hero (“Song in Memory of our lamented patriot, the late W.C. Wentworth”) (words: Henry Kendall) [Unidentified print] Copy at SL-NSW (Mitchell Library); see Thomas Thornton Reed, Henry Kendall: A Critical Appreciation (Rigby, 1960), 56.
Cantata written expressly for the Opening Ceremony of the Sydney International Exhibition (words by Henry Kendall; music by Cavaliere Paolo Giorza (Sydney: [The Exhibition], [1879/80])

Editions: The Poems of Henry Kendall:

Resources: T. T. Reed, Kendall, Thomas Henry (1839-1882), Australian Dictionary of Biography 5 (1974)



KENT, Benjamin Archer (Dr.)
Amateur flautist, vocalist
Born UK, 1808
Active Adelaide, 1840s
Died London, 25 November 1864

References: “THE CORPORATION”, South Australian Register (25 June 1842), 2:; “AMATEUR CONCERT”, South Australian (1 July 1842), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian (7 November 1843), 3:; “AMATEUR CONCERT”, South Australian Register (11 November 1843), 3:; “DIED”, The South Australian Advertiser (18 January 1865), 2:


Bibliography: Peter H. Schurr, Benjamin’s son: Benjamin Archer Kent M.D. (1808-1864):; “Benjamin Archer Kent: a South Australian pioneer”,:



KENTISH, Nathaniel Lipscomb
Songwriter, litigant
Born Winchester, England, 1797
Arrived Sydney, March 1830
Died Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, 11 October 1867

Lyrics: Mount Alexander gold-diggers’ song (“Chorus by all the diggers in full costume“) ([?] : [?], [1852])
The captured lady (answer to Ever of thee I’m fondly dreaming; words by N. C. [recte N. L.] Kentish; composed by Spagnoletti) ([Sydney]; [Spagnoletti], [1861])

References: “KENTISH V. SPAGNOLETTI”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 August 1861), 5:; “Metropolitan Correspondence”, Bathurst Free Press (24 August 1861), 2:

Resources: L. J. Blake, Kentish, Nathaniel Lipscomb (1797-1867), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967)



KEON, Georgina Isabella (O’ SULLIVAN)
Amateur composer
Active Sydney, 1864
Died Sydney, 1927

Summary: Irish born, Keon was a neice (daughter of the sister) of the NSW attorney-general (and amatuer musician) J. H. Plunkett. The Keon family settled at Eden, on Twofold Bay, NSW. In November 1864, J. H. Anderson published Keon’s The Twofold Bay Waltzes, dedicated to her uncle and his wife. In 1866 she married the Irish-born grazier Sylvester O’Sullivan.

References: “DONATIONS TO THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM”, The Sydney Morning Herald (5 March 1859), 5: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (26 November 1864), 12:; “The Twofold Bay Waltzes”, The Sydney Morning Herald (29 November 1864), 4:; “MARRIAGES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (8 September 1866), 1:



KERN, Charles
Music printer, music publisher, bookbinder, general stationer
Active Sydney, as Kern and Mader, 1845-53

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (13 May 1845), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 November 1845), 1:; [Advertisement], Empire (25 June 1853), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 July 1853), 3:

Associations: Frederick Mader



KERR, Andrew
Flauto player
Active Bendigo, 1858

References: [Advertisement], Bendigo Advertiser (5 March 1858), 3:



Vocalist, harpist
Active Hobart, 1834

Hobart 1834: Mrs. Kesterton’s performance on the harp (kindly lent, we understand, by Miss Arthur [? daughter of the Governor]) afforded us considerable pleasure; but the timidity under which this lady laboured, detracted very considerably from the full effect which, we know, she could impart to her playing.

References: [Advertisement], Colonial Times (28 October 1834), 1:; “Mr. Gordonovitch’s concert …”, The Hobart Town Courier (31 October 1834), 3:; [Advertisement], Colonial Times (11 November 1834), 3:



KETTEN, Henry (Henri)
Pianist, composer
Born Hungary, 25 March 1848
Toured Australia May 1880-May 1881
Died 1 April 1883

Images:; h

Obituary (Short): A cable message this morning announces the death, at the early age of 35, of Mr. Henri Ketten, the eminent pianist, who made such a brilliant and successful tour through the colonies a few years ago. Mr. Ketten was a native of Hungary, having been born at Baja on the 25th March, 1848. His talent showed itself at an early age. In 1860 he played Osborne before the Queen, and subsequently visited Germany, Austria, Russia, Switzerland, and Turkey, remaining for three years at Constantinople as conductor at the Imperial Theatre. In 1879 he visited America, and on the 12th June, 1880, he presented himself before a Melbourne audience at the Opera-house. He had no other artists to assist him, the programme consisting entirely of his own performances. The experiment was brilliantly successful, and Mr. Ketten’s tour through the Australian colonies may be described as a triumphal progress, his reception everywhere being as no former musician had ever received. His untimely death will be deeply regretted by all who have had the privilege of hearing his wonderful performances.

References: [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (1 January 1880), 5:; “M. HENRI KETTEN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (7 May 1880), 6: “HENRI KETTEN, PIANIST AND VIRTUOSO”, The Argus (9 June 1880), 6:; [News], The Argus (5 April 1883), 8:; [News], The Argus (5 April 1883), 7:; “HENRI KETTEN”, The Argus (6 April 1883), 7: Richard A. Proctor, “THE STORY OF HENRI KETTEN”, Euroa Advertiser (14 October 1887), 5:

Colonial publications:
The Ketten Galop (Sydney: Nicholson and Co., [1880])
The Ketten Galop (Melbourne: W. H. Glen & Co., [1880])
New caprice (deuxième caprice) (Melbourne: Nicholson and Ascherberg, [1880])
Those evening bells (“words by Thomas Moore; music by Henry Ketten”) (first edition, Melbourne: Allan & Co., [1880])
Minuetto di Boccherini (“arranged by Henry Ketten”) (Melbourne: Allan & Co., [1880])
Serenade from Don Giovanni (“arranged by Henry Ketten”) (Melbourne: Allan & Co., [1880])



Bandsman 3rd Regiment (Buffs)
Arrived Sydney, 29 August 1823 (per Commodore Hayes, from England)
Departed Sydney, 28 January 1827 (per Woodford and Speke, for India)

References: London, National Archives, PRO, WO12/2118: 3rd Regiment of Foot (Buffs) payrolls 1824-26; microfilm copy at SL-NSW: PRO Reel 3695; “SHIP NEWS”, The Sydney Gazette (4 September 1823), 2:; “Shipping Intelligence”, The Sydney Gazette (30 January 1827), 3:



KIERATH, Charles Henry (Karl Heinrich)
Musician, bandmaster (German band)
Born Brunswick [Braunschweig], Germany, 5 January 1829
Arrived Melbourne, VIC, 1855
Died Chiltern, VIC, 21 February 1922

1914: Mr. Kierath is also one of the pioneers of the North-Eastern District; he  arrived in Victoria by the ship Arabia, from Liverpool, in the year 1855. He is a native of Brunswick, Germany. In the year ’55 he formed a bunch of eight musicians for the purpose of visiting England, and then Australia. After a short time in England, and having arranged for the passage of the members of his band to Australia, he was joined by his wife, and the party of young Germans set sail for the Southern Cross lands. On arrival at Melbourne the members of the band gave a series of open air concerts, and also accepted engagements; they also visited Ballarat and Bendigo. On his return to Melbourne he learnt of the Ovens goldfields, and it then became a question whether it would be Beechworth or Sydney. A Mr Johnston engaged four members of the band, who went to Sydney, our esteemed resident going to Beechworth where, with the late Carl Esther, he commenced a green-grocery business, but also accepting engagements as musicians.

References: “WOOLSHED POLICE COURT”, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (7 September 1858), 2: “MANY HAPPY RETURNS OF THE DAY”, Rutherglen Sun and Chiltern Valley Advertiser (9 January 1914), 5:; “EIGHTY-FIVE, NOT OUT”, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (10 January 1914), 2:; “MR. CHARLES KIERATH”, The North Eastern Ensign (24 February 1922), 2:



KILNER, Joseph
Piano-forte manufacturer, music retailer (publisher)
Arrived Melbourne, (1) c. 1850; (2) by 1853
Died Richmond, VIC, 9 May 1891, aged 58

References: ? [Advertisement], The Argus (13 July 1853), 2:; “MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS”, The Argus (6 November 1872), 4s:; “Deaths”, The Argus (11 May 1891), 1:

Summary (Keith Johns): Joseph Kilner first arrived in Australia in 1850 and, after making his fortune in gold and returning to England to collect his family, he returned to Victoria. In 1854 he began making pianos from parts imported from BROADWOOD’S in London, where he had served his apprenticeship. In 1862 Joseph Wilkie, also from Broadwood’s, joined him, the firm becoming Wilkie, Kilner and Company. Between 1863 and 1866 they sold 305 pianos. Around 1870 this factory reverted to a family business and made wooden-frame pianos under the name of Joseph Kilner … The pianos were of good quality and they won several prizes: 1866–1867, Melbourne Intercolonial Exhibition; 1872, Intercolonial Exhibition of Victoria; 1876, Great Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. Killner's name also appeared as publisher on at least one piece of printed music, L’adieu (Song; music by W. St. John M. Caws; words by John Whiteman) (pubished with R. J. Paling).

Bibliography: Keith Johns, “Australian Piano Industry”, in Piano: an encyclopaedia:



KIM, Mr. E.
Clarinette player (12th Regiment)
Active Sydney, 1859

References: [Advertisement], Empire (4 July 1859), 6: 



Family summary: Most, perhaps all, of these singers and instrumentalists belonged to a single extended family, active in Melbourne from 1854. There are certianly duplications, and in due course, the more important of them will have individual entries. For now, however, with a view to fathoming their relationships with each other (or, in one or two instances, perhaps not), a single family entry must suffice.

According to a much later biography of Henry John King junior, born in Melbourne in 1855, his parents Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. King senior arrived in Melbourne on board the Indian Queen, a clipper ship that sailed to and from Liverpool in 1853-55. In the Argus in June 1854, “MR. EDWARD KING, leader at the Salle de Valentino” advertised that he “provides Bands for Quadrille Parties. Harp, violin, piano, guitar, taught”. Immediately beneath appeared an ad by “MR. THOMAS KING, late First Clarionet, Surry Theatre, London, Leader Montpellier Band, Cheltenham, and Second Somerset Militia Band, Bath, provides bands and teaches music.” “MR. E. KING” gave his second grand concert at the Marco Polo Hotel, Melbourne, in July 1854, and “Mons. E. King”, professor of music and piano tuner, advertised his removal to Emerald Hill in January 1855. By October 1856, Edward was leading the band under George Loder for Anna Bishops Melbourne concerts. He led the band of the Melbourne Philharmonic in 1857 and 1860, and played second violin to Miska Hauser in a Beethoven quartet at the latter’s Melbourne concert in February 1857. A “Mr. T. King” was also a clarinet player in Ballarat in 1858-59. In April 1858, he and several colleagues accepted a challenge from a rival Ballarat Band: “MR. T. KING, leader of the Montezuma Band, and five others are prepared to accept the challenge of the Star Band, if there is no shenanigan. Three Events. String band, wind band, man to man, as soloists. The best of two events to received the stakes of [pounds] 100. T. KING, Specimen Hill, Ballarat, 21st April, 1858.“ Back in July 1854, the Argus reported that Mr. King, the clarionettist, and his daughter Miss Juliana King appeared with Fleury’s band at the Salle de Valentino in July 1854; Juliana (actually daughter of Edward King) according to the paper “a young lady nine years of age, who, I was told, appeared for the first time in Melbourne … was quite a favourite at Bristol, and ought to be heard to better advantage than in a large canvas-covered building like the Salle de Valentino”. During 1855, she was billed as “the Infant Sappho” (to Swannell’s “Australian Nightingale”). By the 1860s, she was singing regularly in oratorio, both in Melbourne and Ballarat. In July 1857, one “J. HALL” begged “leave to inform the friends of Mr. Henry J. King, Organist, Pianist, and Singer, that he is expected to arrive at Melbourne in a few days by the ship Commodore Perry, with a choice selection of new Music”. In November 1857, H. J. King [senior] appeared as pianist for Maria Chalker and violinist George Peck, while “Mr. King (of the Bath Concerts)”, presumably Edward, led the orchestra conducted by John Russell for the Melbourne Philharmonic. In January 1859, H. J. King advertised as “Professor of the Organ, Pianoforte, and Singing, teacher at the Church of England Grammar School” from his home in Nelson-place, Emerald Hill. E. King, violin and H. J. King, piano, appeared together in a concert with clarinettist Gustav Faure at the Wesleyan Bazaar, Emerald Hill, in December 1863. Several members of the King family played leading roles in the premiere of George Tolhurst’s Ruth in Prahran in January 1864. Born in Melbourne in 1855 Henry John King junior was in Portland, Victoria, in 1873, where he was organist of St. Stephen’s Church and a teacher of music, but by April 1876 he had reportedly been at Castlemaine for two years where he was conductor of the Castlemaine Philharmonic Society. In May 1876, the Launceston Examiner reported that his father: “Mr. H. J. King, of Melbourne, professor of music, advertises that he proposes taking up his residence in Launceston shortly. Mr. King was organist of St. James's Cathedral, and music master of the Church of England Grammar School. He has also been piano-conductor for the Italian-Opera Company”, though the report went on to confuse King senior with his son. This was clarified when a new song, Wait and Hope was published in September 1876, when the Launceston Examiner reported: “The words are by Eliza Anna King, and the music has been composed by Mr Henry John King, son of Mr. King, of this town”; and in the Melbourne Argus: “composed by Henry John King, of Castlemaine, on words written by Eliza Anna King. Mr. King is a rising musician, and one of the well-known King family of Melbourne.” In 1888, he won the competition for the Inaugural Cantata for the Centennial International Exhibition in Melbourne (see He dedicated his Te Deum and Jubilate in D to his brother Edward Mendelssohn Bach King, who from around 1890 until his death in 1918 was organist of Newcastle Cathedral, NSW.

References: [2 advertisements], The Argus (3 June 1854), 8:; “THE SALLE DE VALENTINO”, The Argus (4 July 1854), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (29 July 1854), 8: article4795724; [Advertisement], The Argus (23 October 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (9 November 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (18 November 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (23 January 1855), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 May 1855), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (16 June 1855), 8:; “PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS AT MELBOURNE”, The Courier (22 June 1855), 3:; “CONCERT AT THE EXHIBITION”, The Argus (16 July 1855), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 May 1856), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (25 October 1856), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (14 February 1857), 8: ; “MISKA HAUSER’S CONCERT”, The Argus (24 February 1857), 5:; “MELBOURNE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, The Argus (4 March 1857), 6:; [Advertisement], The Argus (18 July 1857), 7:; [Advertisement], The Star (28 September 1857), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (3 November 1857), 8:; [Advertisement], The Star (22 April 1858), 3:; [Advertisement], The Star (29 September 1858), 3:; “MONTEZUMA PROMENADE CONCERTS”, The Star (6 October 1858), 2:; “PRINCESS’S THEATRE”, The Argus (4 November 1858), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (21 January 1859), 8:; “PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY’S PERFORMANCE”, The Star (5 March 1859), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (12 April 1859), 8:; [News], The Argus (7 March 1860), 5:; [News], The Argus (26 December 1860), 4:; “ST. PATRICK’S CHURCH FESTIVAL”, The Star (10 November 1863), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (5 December 1863), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (16 January 1864), 8:; “RUTH, A NEW SACRED ORATORIO”, The Argus (22 February 1864), 5:; “BALLARAT EAST PUBLIC LIBRARY”, The Star (20 September 1864), 3:; “THEATRE ROYAL”, The Star (24 October 1864), 2s:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (19 March 1866), 5:; [Advertisement], The Portland Guardian (6 June 1873), 3: [News], The Argus (28 April 1876), 5:; “MR. H. J. KING”, Launceston Examiner (2 May 1876), 3:; “NEW MUSIC”, Launceston Examiner (16 September 1876), 6:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Argus (22 September 1876), 7:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (22 March 1883), 1:; “THE MELBOURNE CANTATA. A COLONIAL MUSICIAN TRIUMPHANT”, The Brisbane Courier (8 May 1888), 6:; “THE MUSIC”, The Argus (2 August 1888), 4s:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (29 October 1894), 1:; “LOVEMAKING IN THE CHOIR. DIVORCE SUIT AT NEWCASTLE”, The Advertiser (18 March 1902), 5:; “DIVORCE COURT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (19 March 1902), 4:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (3 June 1902), 1:; “DEATH OF MR. EDWARD KING”, Singleton Argus (17 December 1918), 2:; [Advertisement; probate of Edward Mendelssohn Bach King, musician], The Sydney Morning Herald (21 December 1918), 11:; “PERSONALITIES”, The Queenslander (28 December 1918), 16:; “MR. HENRY JOHN KING”, The Brisbane Courier (24 April 1933), 11:; “Obituary. Mr. H. J. King”, The Courier-Mail (28 June 1834), 18:; “MR. H. J. KING”, The Sydney Morning Herald (5 July 1934), 7:




KING, Edward
Professor of Music, violinist, orchestral leader
Born Bristol, England, March 1814
Arrived Melbourne, 1854 (? 1853 per Indian Queen, from Liverpool)
Died Kyabram, VIC, 26 October 1894, in his 81st year

Obituary: The death of Mr. Edward King is announced. The deceased gentleman was of an illustrious family, having on his father’s side come from John of Gaunt, son of Edward III by his wife Philippe of Hainault, and on his mother’s side from the Earl of Tyron, the O’Neills-Kings of Ireland and peers of England. The Age says:—The announcement of the death of Mr. Edward King, a veteran violinist, who for nearly 30 years led the orchestra of the Melbourne Philharmonic Society, will occasion widespread regret. Some months ago Mr. King, who belonged to a family of musicians well known in many parts of the colony, removed from Melbourne to Kyabram, and it was there that his demise took place. Mr. King was born in Bristol, in England, in the year 1814, just before the battle of Waterloo, and consequently had reached the ripe age of 80 years. In early childhood he developed great talent for music, and even at 14 years of age was a proficient player, not only of stringed instruments, but also of the clarionet, oboe and flute, all of which he learned without the aid of a master. He subsequently had the advantage of playing under the old English leaders, Loder, Balfe, Cramer and others. He arrived in Victoria in 1854 in the Black Ball liner, the Indian Queen, commanded by Captain Mills, and was immediately engaged to take part in the concerts which were taking place at that time, and which were of a very high class character. He shortly became leader of the Philharmonic Society, and only during the last few years retired from the position. Mr. King was undoubtedly the father of the profession in this colony. He was twice married, his first wife and only daughter being among those who were lost by the sinking of the London in the Bay of Biscay some 29 years ago, as they were returning to Melbourne after a visit to England. During the rehearsal of the Melbourne Liedertafel on Monday night, Mr. H. J. King, the conductor, announced the death of his uncle, Mr. Edward King, who was the oldest musician in this colony, and for over 40 years had quietly and honestly served his art. The choir then sang its “death song,” each member of the choir rising as a tribute of respect to a familiar and honored name.

Obituary: The musical public will hear with regret of the death of the veteran violinist Mr. Edward King, who died on Saturday, after a few day’s illness, at Kyabram. Mr. King was in his 81st year, having been born in March, 1814, at Bristol. Early in youth he exhibited great musical talent, and attained proficiency almost unaided by masters. His professional   career commenced when he was about 14 years of age, and subsequently he had the opportunity of playing under the most distinguished leaders in England, namely, Balfe, John Loder Cramer, and others, from whom be learned a great deal. Shortly after the outbreak of the gold fields, Mr. King with his family emigrated to Victoria in the year 1854, and upon his arrival was immediately engaged to take part in the leading musical affairs of the day. He was subsequently appointed leader of the Melbourne Philharmonic Society’s orchestra, a position which he held for nearly 30 years

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (3 June 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (20 February 1882), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (13 January 1883), 16:; [News], The Argus (29 October 1894), 5:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (29 October 1894), 1:; “DEATH OF A WELL KNOWN MUSICIAN”, Bendigo Advertiser (31 October 1894), 2:; “MUSIC. CONCERTS, &c.”, The Australasian (3 November 1894), 31:; “MUSICAL NOTES”, The Advertiser (10 November 1894), 6:; “MUSICAL AND DRAMATIC NOTES. AUSTRALIA”, Star (8 December 1894), 2:

Associations: Elder brother of Thomas KING


KING, Henry John (senior)
Professor of music, vocalist, pianist, conductor, schoolmaster
Arrived Melbourne, ? 1854 (?1853), by 1855
Died Newcastle, NSW, 16 December 1888, aged 56

Obituary: The death is announced of Mr. H. J. King, one of a large family of musicians who established themselves in Melbourne as far back as 1854. The only one now living is Mr. Edward King, the violinist, of South Yarra. The late Mr. H. J. King had been living in retirement in Newcastle, New South Wales, recently, but was for nearly fifteen years the organist in St. James’s Cathedral, Melbourne, and for about the same period of time professor of music in the Church of England Grammar School, which he entered on its foundation. Mr. King’s eldest son is the composer of the cantata for the inauguration of the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition. Mr. King received his musical education in England, having studied for years with the late Dr. Corfe, and afterwards receiving lessons in orchestration from Sir Michael Costa.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (3 November 1857), 8:; “Deaths”, The Argus (19 December 1888), 1:; [News], The Argus (19 December 1888), 7:; “DEATH OF A MUSICIAN”, Bendigo Advertiser (20 December 1888), 2:; “Obituary: MR. H. J. KING”, Australian Town and Country Journal (29 December 1888), 17:

Associations: Younger brother of Edward KING and Thomas KING; father of Henry John KING (junior), Edward Mendelssohn Bach KING, and George Frederick KING 



KING, Thomas
Violinist, clarinetist, viola player, bass vocalist
Born Clifton, Bristol, England
Arrived Melbourne, 1854 (? 1853)
Died Ballarat, 18 February 1881, aged 61

Obituary: The Ballarat Star reports that Mr. Thomas King, for many years a musical leader in theatres, died suddenly last week. “His history is the history of dramatic art in Ballarat. His arrival dates 26 years back, when, after some years’ service as a musician in Melbourne, he came to Ballarat as clarionet player in the band at the Victoria Theatre, then owned by Messrs. Moodie and Smith. Lola Montes was the attraction at the theatre at the time. From the Victoria Mr. King went to the Montezuma as leader, “Johnny” Hydes being manager. Here he not only officiated as leader, but composed the music for a series of burlesques which were produced. From the Montezuma, he gravitated to the Royal, and there for years he led the orchestra. His experiences were various, and the story of his life from year to year would indeed be a perfect chronicle of theatrical affairs in our city. No playgoer will readily forget “poor Tom King;” no musician who ever served with him in an orchestra, no man who ever met with him apart from his occupation as a musician, not one person who knew him, will refuse the tribute of sorrow to one whose disposition was tempered by the art he loved, and rendered lovable and kindly. Mr, King was a native of Clifton, near Bristol, and was 61 years of age. He has many relatives in the colony. Mrs. A. T. Turner is his sister; Mr. Edward King, violinist, of Melbourne, his brother; and several relatives are well known in musical circles.”

References: “LATEST INTELLIGENCE”, Bendigo Advertiser (18 February 1881), 2:; “LATEST INTELLIGENCE”, Bendigo Advertiser (19 February 1881), 3:; “DEATH OF AN OLD BALLARAT RESIDENT”, Bendigo Advertiser (19 February 1881), 2:; “LATEST INTELLIGENCE”, Bendigo Advertiser (21 February 1881), 2:; “THE LATE MR. THOMAS KING”, The Mercury (22 February 1881), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (20 February 1882), 8:

Associations: Younger brother of Edward KING; brother of Mrs. Austin T. TURNER



KING, George Frederick
Musician, composer
Active Launceston, by 1876
Died Mosman, 21 July 1924, aged 62

1893: Mr. George Frederick King and Mr. E. M. B. King, brothers of Mr. H. J. King, the conductor of the Melbourne Liedertafel, leave Sydney for Europe and America this week, and it was resolved at a meeting of the musical committee of the Melbourne Liedertafel last night to accredit Mr. G. F. King and to give him representative powers during his tour. Mr. King has been requested to furnish the Liedertafel with details relating to musical life abroad, ond to make special reference to music at the forthcoming Chicago Exhibition from a musician’s point of view. Obituary: The death occurred recently at Mosman, at the age of 62, of Mr. George F. King, who for 32 years was a prominent musician in the northern district. A member of a well-known musicnl family, he proceeded to West Maitland as organist and choirmaster of St. Mary’s Anglican Church in 1895. For 32 years he occupied the dual office. In 1917 he took up duty as choirmaster and organist at St. Clement’s, Mosman. During his long residence in Maitland he associated himself with every movement that had for its object the advancement of music. He was conductor of several musical societies. He has left a widow, two sons, and one daughter. The funeral took place from his late residence, Wongalee, Raglan-street, Mosman.

References: “POPULAR CONCERT”, Launceston Examiner (19 September 1876), 3:; “TASMANIAN TELEGRAMS. LAUNCESTON”, The Mercury (23 June 1879), 2:; “NEW SONG AND MUSIC”, The Mercury (13 November 1878), 2:; “AT THE SYDNEY EXHIBITION”, The Mercury (17 December 1879), 3:; “ROCKET RELIEF FUND CONCERT”, Launceston Examiner (14 May 1880), 2:; “THE SYDNEY EXHIBITION”, Launceston Examiner (3 August 1880), 2:; [News], The Argus (7 January 1893), 7:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (22 July 1924), 8:; “OBITUARY. MR. G. F. KING”, The Sydney Morning Herald (1 August 1924), 8:



KING, Mr. E. J. (Ernest)
Clarionet player
KING, Juliana (Miss) (Julia)
Infant vocalist
Died at sea, 11 January 1866
KING, H. J. (Henry John senior)
Vocalist, pianist, conductor, professor of music, schoolmaster
Arrived Melbourne, per Indian Queen, ? 1854; Launceston, 1876
KING, Mrs. Frederick
Soprano vocalist
KING, Alfred Edward
Teacher of music (Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind)
Died Prahran, 2 June 1902, aged 64 years
KING, Henry John, junior
Organist, teacher of music, conductor, composer
Born South Melbourne, 1855 (son of H. J. King, sen.)
Died Southport, QLD, 27 June 1934
KING, Edward Mendelssohn Bach (son of H. J. King, sen.)
Musician, organist
Died Toronto, near Newcastle, NSW, 14 December 1918, aged 47


Vocalist (Seconda donna, Lyster’s company)
Arrived Melbourne, 1 March 1861 (per Achilles, from San Francisco)


References: [News], The Argus (2 March 1861), 5:



Bandsman, band leader (London Quadrille Band; European Band)
Active Sydney, 1859

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 December 1859), 1:



KING, Thomas
Active Goulburn and Bathurst, 1872

References: “THE GOULBURN VOLUNTEERS AND CAPTAIN ROSSI AGAIN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (10 October 1872), 4:



KING, William
Professor of Dancing
Active Sydney, 1840-42

Summary: Notably, in 1840 King was offering to teach his pupils the Australian Quadrilles.

August 1840: REMOVAL. AUSTRALIAN DANCING ACADEMY. WILLIAM KING. Professor of Dancing, George-street, South, Sydney. In respectfully intimating to his friends and the public, that he has removed to a more cart rical and commodious house in Castleieagh-street, four doors from Markct-street; cannot let the opportunity pass without acknowledging the kind feeling and patronage be has experienced since the opening of his Academy, and trusts by paying the most scrupulous and unremitting attention to the comfort and advancement of his pupils, to merit a continnuance and even extension of that support, heretofore so liberally bestowed upon him. W. K. further wishes it to be known, that it is his intention to give a Quadrille party on the first Tuesday in each month, to which he respectfully invites his friends and patrons, and in order to maintain the respectability of the establishment notifies that no person will be admitted without a Ticket, which can be procured by applying at his rooms. The annexed is a list of the principal dances which W. K. proposes to teach at his new establishment, in the most fashionable style, viz- Caledonian Quadrilles, Lancers ditto, Mazurkas ditto, Paine's ditto, Royal Devonshire ditto, Lowe's ditto, Australian ditto, Red Coats ditto, Cuirassiers' ditto, Cambrian's ditto, Chivereau's, &c &c. &c. Highland Laddie, Country Dance, L'ete ditto, La Poole Anglaise ditto, Pieng's Medley ditto, The Regeat ditto, St. Quintor ditto, Circle Waltzing, Tyrolese Waltz, Swiss ditto, Ecossoises, Spanish Dances; &c. &c. &c. Titans. For, one pupil £2 0s. 0d. per quarter Three of the same family. £5 0s. 0d., ditto Private instruction £3 3s. 0d..ditto Two Lessons each week.

References: [Adveritsement], The Colonist (2 May 1840), 5:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (11 August 1840), 3:; [Advertisement], Australasian Chronicle (1 May 1841), 3:; “NEW INSOLVENTS”, The Sydney Herald (21 June 1842), 2:



KING, William
Pianoforte maker, seller and tuner (from John Broadwood and Sons)
Active Sydney, by January 1850
Died Sydney, 17 March 1881, aged 70

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (31 January 1849), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (6 July 1850), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (1 September 1860), 7:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (25 July 1863), 12:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (19 November 1864), 12:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 August 1869), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (19 April 1879), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (15 January 1880), 7:; “Deaths”, The Sydney Morning Herald (22 March 1881), 1:



Organ-Builder, Seraphine, and Pianoforte Maker
Arrived Sydney, by June 1839
Died Sydney, 29 June 1870, aged 75

Summary: One of Kinloch’s organs, built originally for St. Andrew’s Scots Church, c.1845, is now at (?) St. Mark’s Hunter’s Hill.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (17 June 1839), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (27 January 1840), 3:; “DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE”, The Sydney Herald (27 March 1840), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (1 July 1870), 1:

Bibliography: Graeme Rushworth, Historic organs of New South Wales:




Clarionet player, bandsman (40th Regiment)
Active Melbourne, by 1855
Died Melbourne, 6 December 1871, aged 35

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (23 June 1855), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (18 August 1855), 8: ; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 February 1856), 8: ; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 December 1867), 8:; [News], The Argus (25 June 1868), 5:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (7 December 1871), 4:; “INQUESTS”, The Argus (8 December 1871), 7:



Music teacher
Active Bacchus Marsh, VIC, 1867-68

Reference: [Advertisement], The Bacchus Marsh Express (17 August 1867), 2:>;; [Advertisement], The Bacchus Marsh Express (23 November 1867), 4:> ; [Advertisement], The Bacchus Marsh Express (1 August 1868), 1:>



KITTS, James E. (J. E. KITTS)
Bass vocalist, guitarist, banjoist, minstrel performer (New York Serenaders), opera singer, theatrical manager
Arrived Tasmania, by March 1851
Died Carlton, VIC, 30 March 1894

Sydney, April 1864: The great event of the week was, however, the revival of “The Huguenots”, in whioh we are happy to record the great and unqualified success of Mr J. E. Kitts, who succeeded Mr. Farquharson in the arduous part of Marcel. It is but an act of justice to this deserving and painstaking artiste that he sang and acted with a taste and impressiveness that left nothing to be desired. He looked the old soldier to the life, and his fine bass voice shewed to the utmost advantage; his “Piff Paff”, being enthusiastically redemanded, and we gladly record this tribute to his well-deserved triumph.

Obituary: The tidings of the death of Mr. J. E. Kitts, who was so well-known in theatrical circles, will be received with regret by the many Tasmanians who knew the genial old fellow. He landed originally from California at George Town in a brig somewhere in the fifties, and was a member of one of the very first Christy Minstrel companies that appeared in this city. Subsequently for a number of years he was connected with the Melbourne Opera House, when that place of amusement was under the management of the late William S. Lyster. Of late years Mr Kitts frequently visited Launceston, the last time as a business manager for Miss Myra Kemble. 

References: [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (1 March 1851), 133:; “THE SERENADERS”, Colonial Times (1 April 1851), 2:; [Advertisement], Bell’s Life in Sydney (5 July 1851), 3:; “DEPARTURES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (27 October 1851), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (10 June 1853), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (9 September 1854), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (5 October 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (19 October 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], The Argus (4 December 1860), 8:; “PRINCE OF WALES”, Bell’s Life in Sydney (2 April 1864), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (31 March 1894), 1:; “DRAMATIC AND MUSICAL NOTES”, Launceston Examiner (4 April 1894), 3:



KLAUER, Friedrich Wilhelm August
Band musician, composer, arranger, publican
Born Gloina, Germany, 1829
Active Adelaide, by 1866
Died North Adelaide, 17 August 1906

Image:; [Illustration]: “THE LATE MR. F. W. A. KLAUER”, Chronicle (25 August 1906), 31:  

1868: Mr. August Klauer, a private in the Adelaide Regimental Band, arranged and forwarded to the Duke of Edinburgh one or two pieces of music for the Galatea Band, one of which—The Queen’s Letter—His Royal Highness requested to be supplied with.

Obituary: Mr. Frederick William Augustus Klauer, late landlord of the White Hart Hotel, Hindley street, died on Friday evening at the North Adelaide Private Hospital. The deceased, who was 76 years of age, was for over 20 years a member of the Adelaide City Council. Born at Gloina, Germany, in 1829, at the age of 19 he enlisted in the Kaiser’s army, and saw considerable service in skirmishes against the revolutionary Socialists. At Baden he was pre- sent at the taking of Restadt. He there received a bayonet wound in the thigh. Mr. Klauer afterwards spent some months in England and the United States, but hearing glowing accounts of Australia, returned to Liverpool and took a passage for Melbourne as a member of a German band, his funds having become exhausted. He walked from Geelong to Ballarat, and there joined a band which was formed in connection with the Eureka Stockade incident, to play the diggers up to the scene of what proved a tragic encounter with the Government troops. At the Ovens diggings subsequently his party struck a pocket of gold and took out 80 oz. A run of luck followed, and each of the four men made £500 in a month. Mr. Klauer next went to the Indigo diggings, and there had a narrow escape with his life, for through the falling of a prop he was buried four hours in the drive. A boulder fell over him, and just allowed room for him to breathe. Returning from the Crackenback diggings his party was snowed up for three days at the loot of Mount Kosciusko. The deceased was present at Lambing Flat, now the township of Young, when a riot occurred between Chinese and English diggers, and the former were burned out of their tents by the latter. Several diggers   were wounded with sabre cuts inflicted by the police, and a bullet fired by a trooper struck a prop against which Mr. Klauer was leaning. The deceased used to tell many interesting stories of the old mining days […] Mr. Klauer returned to the Ovens from Lambing Flat, and there lost every penny of his money on a claim, at Christmas Town, near Rutherglen. He moved from place to place on the various fields, and recovered his lost fortune to some extent. Then he joined an American circus, with which he came to Adelaide. His musical instinct led him to join the Theatre Royal orchestra, and he also played in other bands. Mr. Klauer was landlord successfully of the Clarendon, the Lady Fergusson, and the White Hart Hotels for over 30 years, and was the oldest publican in Adelaide. He was a prominent Freemason, having been a Past Master of the Duke of Leinster Lodge, Provincial Sub-Prior of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. Palestine, Rhodes, and Malta, and a Grand Prelate of the Order of Knight Templars.

Obituary: Mr. Frederick William August Klauer of Hilton, died at the North Adelaide private hospital on August 17. Mr. Klauer, who was born of German parents in Yorkshire 76 years ago, was one of the best known men in Adelaide. For many years he kept the White Hart Hotel in Hindley-street and for two decades he represented Gawler ward in the Adelaide City Council. He was a great supporter of manly sports, especially rowing, and he identified himself also with the Locomotive Band, which he accompanied last year to the Ballarat competitions. He had for some years lived a retired life on his estate at Hilton, but be still retained interests in various commercial enterprises in the city. He will be greatly missed in many quarters, his genial disposition making him a general favorite. 

References: “THE VOLUNTEER FORCE”, South Australian Register (10 July 1866), 3:; “THE GALATEA BAND”, South Australian Register (25 April 1868), 6:; “FUNERAL OF THE LATE MR. G. LODER”, South Australian Register (17 July 1868), 2:; “DEATH OF MR. F. W. A. KLAUER. A STIRLING CAREER”, The Register (18 August 1906), 7:; “BAND ASSOCIATION”, The Advertiser (21 August 1906), 9:; “OBITUARY”, Chronicle (25 August 1906), 47:



KLEE, Henry Green
Died Sydney, January 1867

References: “CONCERT“, The Sydney Morning Herald ( ), 4:; “FUNERAL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (7 January 1867), 8:



Violinist (? watchmaker)
Active Queensland, 1860s

1863: Mr. Klein re-appeared and confirmed the good opinion we before expressed of him. We have been informed that this gentleman was well connected with the orchestra of the Prince of Wales Opera House, at Sydney, during the sojourn of the Lyster troupe in that city. 

1864: A novelty in the entertainment was the performance of a violin solo, by Herr Klein, an amateur, who certainly possesses musical ability of a very high order.

References: [Advertisement], The Darling Downs Gazette (27 February 1862), 3:; “THE CONCERTS AT THE ARGYLE ROOMS”, The Darling Downs Gazette (6 March 1862), 3:; [News], The Courier (22 December 1863), 2:; [News, The Brisbane Courier (15 November 1864), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (30 May 1870), 8: “ALL SAINTS CHURCH”, The Brisbane Courier (18 November 18960, 4:; “MUSICAL UNION CONCERT”, The Brisbane Courier (6 December 1905), 6:



KNIGHT, (Richard) Troy
Vocalist, songwriter, banjo player, composer
Active Victoria, by March 1850
Died Lidcombe, NSW, 1 August 1912, aged 85

 Summary: Troy Knight appeared in concert with Sara Flower, Joseph Megson and Thomas Reed in Geelong in March 1850. Among his own material, in Launceston in November 1850, he sang his ballad The Fire Fly (“Written and sung by Troy Knight”), and in Adelaide in August 1853, Uncle Tom (“written, composed, and sung of this occasion only, by Troy Knight”).

Horsham 1912: A cutting from the Sydney Mail of April 19, 1902, gives on account of an interesting interview with the late Mr. Richard Troy Knight, one of the oldest identities of Horsham. At the time of the interview Mr. Knight was 72 years of age, and his vigorous health of that time was referred to as something of interest in view of the fact that he was one of the artists who sang with the late Madam Sara Flower in the days when Australia was young. The cutting of the interview, embellished by a portrait of the late Mr. Knight, is treasured very highly by his daughter, Mrs. H. G. Swindells, of Horsham. In the narrative given by the deceased of his career are some stirring incidents of the strenuous times spent on the stage with Sarah Flower, Mrs. Deering. Julia Harland, Madame Carandini, Joe Small, Walter Sherwin, Lola Montez, Mrs. Crosby, Carry Nelson and G. V. Brooke. Writing of the trip which he had to San Francisco, Mr. Knight said: “There was too much revolver practice in ‘Frisco then. I saw three men shot and one hung for killing a poor old man, a storekeeper in Montgomery-street, in broad day light. A little girl looking through the shop window saw the murderer bash the old man’s head in with a tomahawk, and afterwards rob the till and the dead man’s pockets. The murderer was taken back to the shop, and the crowd cut a length of rope from the coil lying close to the murdered man. The vigilantee committee held a short open-air trial, and the ruffian was hung on the scene within 30 minutes of the murder.”

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (9 March 1850),  2:; “Den carry me back to ole Virgini”, The Cornwall Chronicle (28 September 1850), 635:; [Advertisement], Launceston Examiner (6 November 1850), 11:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (23 August 1853), 2:;“TROY KNIGHT”, South Australian Register (23 September 1886), 5:;  “BY THE WAY … Mr. Troy Knight writes”, Australian Town and Country Journal (10 August 1904), 22: ; “DEATH OF AN OLD WIMMERAITE”, The Horsham Times (2 August 1912), 5:; “DEATHS”, The Advertiser (17 August 1912), 18:; “THE LATE TROY KNIGHT”, The Horsham Times (5 November 1912), 6:


Amateur musician, church musician, Anglican priest
Born England, 2 June 1763 (? 1762)
Arrived Port Phillip, NSW (later VIC), October 1803
Died TAS, 17 September 1838, aged 76

Summary (after Stephens & Boyce): As incumbent of St. David’s Church, Hobart, Knopwood introduced choral and instrumental music and the chanting of the psalms and canticles. He formed a small choir from the military and civil establishment. In May 1821 purchased a violoncello for the church for £5, and in 1825 acquired for it an 8-stop pipe organ, built by John Gray of London, the first to be installed in any Australian church. At the organ’s inauguration in St. David’s in May 1825, Knopwood, who had since moved from to Rokeby (where he was appointed rector in 1826), returned to preach on the place of music in worship, taking as his text Psalm 57, v.9: “Awake up, my glory; awake, my lute and harp”, mentioning psalm setting then popular by Aldrich, Clarke and Blow, and recalling attending the Handel Commemoration at Westminster Abbey in 1784. The organ remained in St. David’s until 1857, and since then has been the organ of St. Matthew’s, Rokeby.

References: “AN ODE. Address to the Organ of St. David’s Church”, Hobart Town Gazette (13 May 1825), 3:; [News], Colonial Times (18 September 1838), 6:; “The Reverend Mr. Knopwood”, Colonial Times (25 September 1838), 7:

Resources: Linda Monks, Knopwood, Robert (1763-1838), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967); Geoffrey Stephens, Anglican Church in Tasmania, and Knopwood: a biography; Boyce, God and the city: a history of St. David’s Cathedral (2012), 18-19, 224 notes 30-33   


KNOTT, Dr. (John)
Amateur vocalist
Active Adelaide, 1840s
Died Adelaide, 21 October 1850, in his 44th year

References: “THE CORPORATION”, South Australian Register (25 June 1842), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian (7 November 1843), 3:; “AMATEUR CONCERT”, South Australian Register (11 November 1843), 3:; “SAINT PATRICK’S SOCIETY. ANNUAL DINNER”, South Australian Register (3 May 1850), 2:; “DIED”, South Australian Register (22 October 1850), 2:



Vocalist, actor, theatre manager
Arrived Hobart, 11 April 1830 (per Wanstead)
Active Sydney, by March 1833
Died Melbourne, 9 May 1844

Summary: Knowles was acting in Sydney theatre by March 1833, and in April he and his future wife Harriet Jones “sang the comic duett of Pretty Polly Hopkins” between the plays. According to Oppenheim, the pair also appeared as Mrs. Love and Mr. Cooper (e.g. billed in the same month, April 1833). When Knowles and the Gazette’s collector William Aldis first appeared in concert in Sydney in January 1835, the Monitor counted both of them as musical amateurs: “We are not aware what caused Messrs. Knowles and Aldis to quit their ordinary professions and turn public singers. Their voices are not suitable for a concert room. However they appeared to have been diligent in practicing, and got through their parts creditably.” Perhaps they were members of the choir of the Catholic chapel, which also sang at the concert, for Knowles, as well as singing a solo song, was also soloist in a double chorus by Purcell. Knowles was later manager of the theatre, a popular Shylock and and Australia’s first professional Hamlet.

References: [News], The Hobart Town Courier (17 April 1830), 2:; “TASMANIAN NEWS”, The Sydney Gazette (1 May 1830), 3:; [News], The Sydney Monitor (23 March 1833), 2:; “THEATRE”, The Sydney Monitor (17 April 1833), 2:; “THEATRE”, The Sydney Herald (22 April 1833), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (27 March 1834), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (27 March 1834), 1:; “MR. GORDONOCITCH’S CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (22 January 1835), 2:; “CONCERT”, The Australian (23 January 1835), 2:; “The Concert”, The Sydney Monitor (24 January 1835), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (21 March 1835), 3:; “PROJECTED DEPARTURES’, The Sydney Monitor (24 May 1837), 2:; “ARRIVALS”, The Sydney Gazette (4 October 1838), 2: “THE LATE MR. CONRAD KNOWLES”, The Australian (4 June 1844), 3:; “AUSTRALIAN STAGE. FAMOUS PLAYERS OF THE PAST”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 November 1912), 7:; “OLD THEATRES OF MELBOURNE”, Illustrated Australian News (1 Augst 1890), 10:

Resources: H. L. Oppenheim, Knowles, Conrad Theodore (1810-1844), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967)



KNOWLES, Harriet (Mrs. LOVE, Mrs. JONES, Mrs. OLLIFE)
Actor, vocalist
Active Sydney, by 1833; South Australian, until 1848

Summary: At Sydney theatre in April 1833, Harriet Jones and Conrad Knowles “sang the comic duett of Pretty Polly Hopkins” between the plays. A few days later (according to Oppenheim) she and Knowles also appeared instead as Mrs. Love and Mr. Cooper. By 1837 she was Mrs. Conrad Knowles, and, following Knowles’s death in 1844, by 1846 active in Tasmania and later Adelaide as Mrs. Ollife. Though mainly an actor, she also sang in several interesting musical words including Charles Nagel’s Mock Catalani in 1842, and as Medora in the second performance of G. F. Duly’s opera Conrad the Corsair in Launceston in October 1846. Among other vocal notices, at Mr. Lewis’s concert in December 1834, her singing of Rose-bud of Summer was “simple, unaffected but expressive”; and as Fatima in The Illustrious Stranger in May 1835 she sang Bishop’s (inserted) song Love has eyes “very prettily”.

(March 1839): One of our most generally useful actresses, is Mrs. Knowles; for although in tragedy or genteel comedy she is not at home, in domestic dramas she is equal to any other actress, while in low comedy she has no equal; she can dance well, sing tolerably, has a genteel carriage on the stage, and is always well dressed, by which we do not mean that she wears the most expensive clothes, but that she dresses to the proper costume of the character she is to assume. Mrs. Knowles is also industrious and punctual […] She is now very seldom seen; and when the public do get a glimpse of her, it is in the most trilling characters she can be put into. One reason that we have heard suggested for this is, that Mrs. Knowles is a dancer, and that Mr. Lazar, with parental partiality, is desirous to keep his daughter exclusively before the public […]

(June 1842): Sir, Feeling an interest to witness the representation of the “Mock Catalani”, I attended the Theatre on  Tuesday evening last, having first provided myself with the pamphlet of the piece, as published at Tegg’s. With this before me, I could not help feeling surprised at the extraordinary extent to which the performers carried, what, in theatrical parlance is named, cadging; or, in other words, substituting their inventive phraseology for that of the Author’s […] The most ludicrous transmutation was that by Mrs Knowles, in the song entitled The pretty bark hut in the bush, who instead of singing  “With his corps ’tis quite clear we can’t tarry”!, actually mumbled forth “With her corpse, &c.”

References: “THEATRE”, The Sydney Monitor (17 April 1833), 2:; “THEATRE”, The Sydney Herald (22 April 1833), 2:; [News], The Sydney Gazette (18 July 1833), 2:; “COURT OF REQUESTS”, The Australian (6 January 1834), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (27 March 1834), 1:; “Mr. Lewis’s Concert”, The Sydney Monitor (20 December 1834), 2:; “THEATRE”, The Sydney Monitor (30 May 1835), 2:; “PROJECTED DEPARTURES’, The Sydney Monitor (24 May 1837), 2:; “ARRIVALS”, The Sydney Gazette (4 October 1838), 2:; “THE VICTORIA”, The Sydney Herald (23 January 1839), 2:; “The Theatre”, The Sydney Monitor (18 March 1839), 3:; “ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE. To the Editor”, The Australian (9 June 1842), 3:; “PORT PHILLIP THEATRICALS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 June 1844), 3:; “THE THEATRE”, Launceston Advertiser (27 December 1844), 3:; “ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (2 August 1845), 2:; [Advertisement], The Australian (29 July 1845), 2:; “OLYMPIC THEATRE”, The Cornwall Chronicle (28 October 1846), 831:; [Advertisement], South Australian (22 January 1847), 4:; [Advertisement], South Australian (6 October 1848), 3:; “AUSTRALIAN STAGE. FAMOUS PLAYERS OF THE PAST”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 November 1912), 7:



KNOX, William Robert
Organist, composer
Born Adelaide, 21 July 1861
Died 7 September 1933, aged 72

Musical works:
Gladys Gavotte (“pour piano par W. R. Knox”) (Adelaide: P. A. Howells &​ Co., [189-])
Tarantelle in E mineur  (“pour piano par W. R. Knox”) (Adelaide: P. A. Howells &​ Co., [189-])

References: “NEW MUSIC”, The Advertiser (10 April 1894), 6:; “DEATHS”, The Advertiser (7 September 1933), 14:; “Order For Administration in Bankruptcy”, The Advertiser (20 January 1934), 18: 



Professor of Music
Born 22 November 1801
Arrived Nelson, NZ, 30 January 1850 (per Berkshire, from London, 4 October 1849)
Active Sydney, 1853
Died Nelson, NZ, by 1878

Summary: Kynvett was a grandson of Charles Knyvett (1752-1822), alto singer at the Handel Commemoration of 1784, a gentleman of the Chapel Royal from 1786 and organist from 1822, and father of Charles, Henry, and William (1779-1856). Edmund’s father Charles (1773-1852) studied under Samuel Webbe and was organist of St. George’s, Hanover Square, from 1802, and with William, and Greatorex and James Bartleman was director of the Hanover Square Concerts. Edmund was insolvent in 1846, and shortly afterward (allowing for some possible confusion among the Knyvetts) was reportedly the first music teacher of the painter William Blake Richmond (1842-1921), a sickly child who was meanwhile receiving general tutoring at home from Ruskin: “The musical training bestowed on him was of the most thorough description. His first lesson was given to him by old Edmund Knyvett, who was one of Haydn’s pupils. He used to go to York Street dressed in a blue coat, with brass buttons and shorts, and play Mozart’s and Haydn’s fugues and sonatas upon one of those charming tinkling little pianos made about 150 years ago.” (“Sir William Richmond and his work”, The Review of Reviews (20 December 1902), 588: Edmund, aged 49, and described as a “farmer”, arrived in New Zealand in January 1850 with his wife Emma, 42, and 11 children. he was in Sydney in mid-1853, and at St. Mark’s Collegiate Institution in Alexandria in October 1853: “THE department of Music, Vocal and Instrumental, in the above institution has been undertaken by Edmund Knyvett, Esq., (so well known in musical circles in England,) formerly deputy organist at St. George's, Hanover Square, afterwards organist at St. Peter's, Pimlico, and now organist of St. Mark’s Church, Alexandria” (music was later taken over at the school by Charles W. Harwood). He was back in Nelson, New Zealand by 1855, and last advertised as a music teacher there in 1873. A death notice for a William Knyvett appeared in Sydney in September 1857. Edmund died in NZ sometime between 1873 and 1877.

Sydney 1853: MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. - Mr. EDMUND KNYVETT, Professor of Music in London for a period of 25 years, begs to inform the public of 8ydney that he is desirous of giving instruction in Pianoforte - playing, and Singing. Mr. E. Knyvett is nephew to the celebrated William Knyvett, organist and composer to her Majesty, conductor of the Concerts of Ancient Music, &c, of the York and Birmingham festivals. Mr. E. Knyvett was for many years deputy organist of St. George’s, Hanover-square, and afterwards organist of St. Peter's, Belgrave-square. The following extract from a speech of Mr. Justice Chapman, is from the Wellington Spectator, - “The name of one Nelson Settler, Knyvett, is a guarantee for good taste, especially in good old English and sacred music.” Double Bay, July, 1853.

References: “2009. PATRICK BOURKE was indicted for stealing, on the 11th of August, 1 tent, value 15s., the goods of Edmund Knyvett”, Old Bailey Proceedings (17t August 1840), 610:; “INSOLVENCY CERTIFICATES”, The Jurist (7 February 1846), 45:; “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, Nelson Examiner (2 February 1850), 191:; “LIST OF PERSONS qualified to server as JURORS”, Nelson Examiner (7 February 1852), 4:; [Advertisement], Nelson Examiner (22 May 1852), 49:; “NELSON PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, Nelson Examiner (2 October 1852), 126:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (14 July 1853), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 October 1853), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (12 October 1853), 1:; “DEATH”, The Sydney Morning Herald (7 September 1857), 1:; [Advertisement], Colonist (10 January 1871), 4:; [Removals from electoral roll], Colonist (8 May 1877), 2:

Resources: Knyvett, Charles, and Knyvett, William, Dictionary of National Biography 31 (1885-1900)

Thanks (September 2013): To Linda Burge for information and the photograph reproduced above



Active Melbourne, 1860

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (8 February 1859), 3:; “CITY COURT”, The Argus (17 January 1859), 6:;  “MELBOURNE NEWS”, Bendigo Advertiser (25 February 1859), 2:;  “CITY COURT”, The Argus (26 May 1860), 6:

Associations: Adam Plock



KOHLER, Richard Wildblood

Professor of the Horn, Cornopean, Cornet-a-Piston, Concertina, French Flageolet, Guitar, Rock Harmonicon, &c.
Active Melbourne by 1853; Adelaide until 1881

Arrived Melbourne, 22 June 1856 (per Shalimar, from Liverpool, 23 March)

Summary: Richard Kohler played first horn in the band of the Melbourne Philharmonic Society in November and December 1854. He was a leading soloist in the band of the Theatre Royal in 1855, along with Creed Royal. He toured with Lavenu in 1857, and in 1858, he and his brother, J. W. Kohler (arrived 1856), made their first joint appearance. The brothers were still playing together when they appeared in Sydney in 1879, and Richard was active in Adelaide in 1880 and 1881. Richard was in court in New Zealand in 1864. A late documented public appearance was with Compton’s Opera Company in Perth in May 1881.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (1 November 1854), 8:; “THEATRE ROYAL”, The Argus (30 July 1855), 5:; “THEATRE ROYAL”, The Argus (1 August 1855), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (25 September 1855), 3:; “MUSICAL INSTRUCTION”, The Argus (25 September 1855), 5:; “THEATRE ROYAL. MISS CATHERINE HAYES”, The Argus (28 September 1855), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 March 1856), 10:; “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, The Argus (23 June 1856), 4:; “IMPORTS”, The Argus (24 June 1856), 4:; “THEATRE ROYAL”, The Argus (1 December 1857), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (10 April 1858), 8:; [Advertisement], The Press (16 March 1864), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (19 June 1879), 2:; “SYDNEY INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 September 1879), 5:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (1 April 1881), 1:; [Advertisement], The West Australian (17 May 1881), 3:

Images: From The Illustrated Melbourne Post (Samuel Calvert), Persistent links:;; Stebbings and Kohler: William Horace Stebbings, violinist and teacher of same with companion and fellow musician Richard Wildblood Kohler, an ex-military band member by way of Mauritius who settled in Australia and New Zealand. Photo taken in New Zealand and labelled, Professor Stebbings and his friend “Concertina Dick”.


Chinese musician
Active Ballarat, 1863

1863: At about nine o’clock Mr. Lang, the assiduous president of the institute, brought up to the orchestra a band of some tea or a dozen Chinese, whose services he had enlisted in the good cause. It had been announced that Mr. Ah Coon, the Government interpreter, would favor the company with songs in the Malay, Amoy, and Chin Choo dialects, but Mr. Ah Coon, it appears, did not feel himself in sufficiently robust health to trust his reputation as a vocalist to the hazard of an attempt that evening, confining himself to heralding to the audience the performances of his compatriots. With Chinese music and musical instruments our readers are somewhat familiar, but we dare say they will not be sorry to have the comments of an explanatory paper handed to us on Saturday evening by the president. From this we learn that Ge Sin played on the Kong-wai. The drums covered with buffalo skins were played by Ah Kow, and the gong by Le Tak. The Chinese guitar, or moot-kem, a flat circular instrument with four strings, played on by means of a small piece of bone, was manipulated by Lee-Sem. Wee-Pin played with bone the Sam-yen, a guitar like instrument of three strings, the sounding board being covered with snake-skin. The pan-ewoo, a flat disc of wood for the purpose of keeping time, was beaten by sticks. The shap-ar, a small oblong piece of hardwood six inches by three, was also used for marking time. Wee Pin played the cymbals or cha, well known to dwellers in Ballarat East. Lee Tak also played the gong or laur,  “very effective”, as Mr. Lang says, “in producing loud music”. Lee Yeng and Lee Chok played the tee-uh or tuk-tie, which produced sounds similar to the Scotch bagpipes, or Scotch organ, as Ah Coon calls the instrument. As we have before stated, Mr. Ah Coon did not sing, but Lee Tak and Kong Wai did. The first sang in his natural voice, and the second in falsetto; but, owing to the ponderousness of the accompaniment, neither could be heard. At the conclusion of the songs, the party retired amidst the applause which courtesy, if not appreciation demanded.

References: [Advertisement], The Star (3 October 1863), 3:; “NEWS AND NOTES”, The Star (5 October 1863), 2:; “CHINESE SINGING AND PLAYING”, Bendigo Advertiser (7 October 1863), 3:



KOPP, Julius
Professor of Music and Singing, violinist, organist, orchestra leader
Active Brisbane, 1863
Died (suicide) Brisbane, 6 January 1866

1863: We cannot, however, allow this occasion to pass without congratulating the public upon the acquisition of musical talent which we recognise in the person of Mr. Kopp, who is a violinist of a high order. He is a composer also, his first performance being the “Young Australia” Polonnaise, dedicated by him to Captain Phillips who has just left us. It might be regarded as an indication of something like vanity on the part of the “artiste” that he gave precedence to his own work when the names of some of the great masters appeared on the programme; but let us look upon this act as a manifestation of gratitude for his safe conveyance from “Vaderland” to the wide territory of Queensland, or as a peace offering of the first fruits of his genius to the country of his adoption. Mr. Kopp had not before appeared in Brisbane, but the way in which he has been praised in Ipswich, where he made his “debut,“ led us to expect something superior at his hands. It is unnecessary that we should say anything as to the merits of his composition as such; but of his performances on the violin we can speak with pleasure. A fantasia (“Il Trovatore”) by Alard, was rendered with a decision of touch and brilliancy of execution that have never been equalled in this colony as, also, was Artot’s “Souvenir de Bellini”. 

Obituary: The remains of the late Julius Kopp, who perhaps held the highest position in this colony as a musician, were conveyed to the Church of England portion of the Brisbane Cemetery yesteraday afternoon. As a proof of the respect in which tho deceased was hold by all who knew him, we may mention that the Rev. Mr. Mosely, formerly the incumbent of the Fortitude Valley Church, where Mr. Kopp acted as organist, and also tho Rev. Mr. Matthews, the present incumbent of the same church, were present at the funeral […] The hearse containing the body of the deceased was followed not only by a large number of his countrymen (Germans), but also by all the male members of the corps dramatique of the Victoria Theatre, the leadership of the orchestra of which was most ably represented by the deceased. After the magnificent service of the Church of England had been read, tho members of the German Liedertafel sang the “Hymne an der Nicht”, which was composed by the late Mr. Kopp, and arranged by Mr. B. Simmons. […]References: [Advertisement], The Courier (10 October 1863), 6:; [News], The Courier (22 December 1863), 2:; [News], The Courier (23 December 1863), 2:; [Advertisement], The Brisbane Courier (12 July 1864), 1:; “INQUEST”, The Brisbane Courier (9 January 1866), 2:; [News], The Brisbane Courier (9 January 1866), 2:; “QUEENSLAND”, Launceston Examiner (16 January 1866): “Mr. Julius Kopp, the leader of the orchestra of the theatre, shot himself through the head yesterday.”



Pianist, composer
Born Paris, 1841
Arrived (1) Sydney, 1 September 1880 (per Australia, from San Francisco)
Returned to Europe, 1882-85
Arrived (2) Adelaide, 1 July 1885 (per Carthage, from London)
Departed Melbourne, 7 November 1896 (for Europe)
Died Bordeaux, 8 July 1916


Summary: Kowalski came to Australia for the Melbourne Exhibition of 1880-81. The world premiere season of his opera Vercingetorix at Sydney's Garden Palace opening on 31 March 1881 was followed by a performance in Melbourne. With his friend the writer Marcus Clarke (who died in August 1881) as librettist for most of the work, he wrote an opera Moustique, reportedly premiered in Belgium in 1883 (see Kowalski’s letter to the editor of July 1889 for details of the collaboration). One song only from the score was published, We banish love (1881). Under the composer’s direction, the Sydney Philharmonic first played the overture of Moustique in March 1886 and a Sydney production followed in 1889. At his Sydney farewell in September 1896 he gave the first performance of his new piano concerto in C minor, with orchestra conducted by John Delaney.

1895: As a composer he is already well known, his “Chant du Matin,” “Niagara,” “Il était une föis,” &c, being recognised as melodious works of standard merit. His latest musical composition, “La Vie Future” (words by Mr. R. R. Garran), a religious drama in three acts, written for principals, chorus, orchestra, and organ, has not yet been performed; but it is to be hoped that before long the public will have the opportunity of hearing it.

References: [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 September 1880), 5:; “SHIPPING ARRIVALS”, Australian Town and Country Journal (4 September 1880), 36:; “Music and the Drama”, Australian Town and Country Journal (2 April 1881), 13:; “MUSIC AND DRAMA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (21 April 1881), 7:; “KOWALSKI’S EXHIBITION CONCERTS”, The Argus (15 August 1881), 6:; “VERCINGETORIX”, The Argus (22 September 1881), 7:; “VERCINGETORIX”, The Argus (26 September 1881), 6:; “SOUTH AUSTRALIA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 July 1885), 12:; “THE SYDNEY PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, The Sydney Morning Herald (26 March 1886), 9:; “ART, MUSIC, AND THE DRAMA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (29 June 1889), 7:; “AMUSEMENTS. ‘MOUSTIQUE’ AT THE OPERA HOUSE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (3 July 1889), 10:; “ROUND ABOUT THE THEATRES”, Illustrated Sydney News (11 July 1889), 23:; “LIBRETTO OF MOUSTIQUE. TO THE EDITOR”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 July 1889), 8:; “M. Henri Kowalski”, Australian Town and Country Journal (23 November 1895), 25:; “M. KOWALSKI’S ORATORIO”, The Sydney Morning Herald (21 December 1895), 10:; “ORATORIO – FUTURE LIFE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (26 December 1895), 6:; “THE KOWALSKI FAREWELL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (22 August 1896), 10:; “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, The Argus (9 November 1896), 4:; “MUSIC AND DRAMA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (23 September 1916), 8:; “PERSONAL”, The Argus (26 September 1916), 6:; “THE KOWALSKI FAREWELL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (28 September 1896), 3:

Some colonial works and publications: The belles of Melbourne (valse de salon) (Melbourne : W.H. Glen &​ Co., [1880]); Vercingetorix, or, Love and patriotism ([libretto]“a lyric drama in three acts /by Henri Kowalski; the English libretto by J. Lake”) (Melbourne: W. H. Williams, 1881); We banish love (from Moustique; words by Marcus Clarke) (Melbourne: Nicholson, [1881])
Wilt thou be mine (words by Albert G. Dawes; “The only melody written in Australia by H. Kowalski; Dedicated to Mr Armes Beaumont“ (Sydney: Nicholson &​ Co., [1885]); Nuit Australienne, op. 76 (valse pour piano) (Mayence: B. Schott ; Sydney : Schott, [1886]); Spring song (words by Longfellow) (Sydney: W. H. Paling &​ Co., [1886] ); Festal Lyric (“the pope’s episcopal jubilee, 1843-1893”) (Sydney: French Musical Instrument Depot, [1893]); Dawn and dusk (“words written by H. H.”) in The Australian Musical Album 1894 (Sydney: W.J. Banks, 1894); Twilight of love (song;  with accomp. of violin or violoncello words by Gilbert Parker; music by Henri Kowalski (Sydney: The French Musical Instruments Depot., [1895]); The Future Life (La vie future) (oratorio) [1895]; For Memory (words by May Kendall) ([Sydney]: Gordon & Gotch, [1896]); Marche hongroise : pour piano, op. 13 (Melbourne: W.H. Glen &​ Co., [18--]); O Jesus! open wide thy heart (Sydney: Batson & Co., [18--])

Resources: Australian variety Theatre Archive: 1881 (Vercingetorix):; 1889 (Moustique)



KOWARZIK, Francis Frederick (KOWARSIK)

Professor of Music, violinist  (“The Van Diemen’s Land Paganini”)
Born Vienna, 1813
Arrived TAS, by 1839
Died Launceston, 7 August 1883, aged 73 years

References: [Advertisement], Launceston Advertiser (7 November 1839), 2: ; Advertisement], The Courier (3 November 1840), 1:; “BALL AND CONCERT”, The Courier (6 November 1840), 4: ht; [Launceston news], Colonial Times (11 May 1841), 4: [News], Launceston Examiner (1 April 1843), 4:; [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (22 September 1849), 882:; [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (26 September 1849), 890:; [News], The Cornwall Chronicle (1 December 1858), 4: ; “Deaths”, Launceston Examiner (8 August 1883), 1:

Resources: G. T. Stilwell et al.:; G. F. Stilwell, “Mr. and Mrs. George Carr Clark of Ellinthorp Hall”, Tasmanian Historical Research Association 11/3 (April 1963), 72-109 (83-84, 101 note 18)



Alpine and Tyrolese vocalist
Active South Australia and Queensland, 1862-63

References: [Advertisement], Süd Australische Zeitung (13 August 1862), 3:; [Advertisement], Süd Australische Zeitung (24 September 1862), 3:; [News], The Courier (22 December 1863), 2:; “MUSIC AND THE DRAMA”, The Queenslander (7 August 1909), 35:



KRETSCHMANN, Joseph (Josef)
Violinist (first violin of the Grand Ducal Opera House of Carlsruhe, Baden), composer
Born Kommatau, near Prague, 1837/8
Arrived Sydney, by January 1877
Died Sydney, 29 April 1918, aged 80

Sydney, January 1877: Herr Joseph Kretschmann made his debut as a solo violinist, and played an andante of Mendelssohn’s with marked effect, and in the finale proved himself to be an executant of such music to whom an audience can listen with pleasure and interest. He played without affectation, and bows firmly and gracefully, and succeeds in giving even presto passages, with great clearness. His tone, perhaps, maybe improved, but his efforts last night were loudly applauded.

Obituary: The death of Josef Kretschmann at the age of 80 years last Monday removes from amongst us a touching embodiment of cheery old age, known by sight to thousands of people, and a musician with a genius for teaching, who was adored by his pupils, period after period, for 40 years past. All such will rejoice to learn that their kind-hearted old master kept in harness until within a fortnight of the end, and passed away quietly and happily at Lavender Bay, without any seriously apparent illness. According to a statement made by the violinist in 1910, he was born at Kommatau, near Prague, and was left an orphan at the age of seven. Eventually he entered the Leipsic Conservatorium on a scholarship, and later on, after experience as leader of the orchestra at the Court Theatre, he was appointed violinist for some years to the Grand Duke of Baden-Baden. The Grand Duchess furnished him with the means to realise his ambition of visiting the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh, but his money ran out when he was near Mount Ararat and he beat a hasty retreat back to civilisation via Constantinople. His only other adventure consisted of service as a Red Cross stretcher-bearer during the Franco-Prussian war. Kretschmann was gentle and kind-hearted by nature, and the horrors of war made such an impression on him that the subject was one he dreaded even to refer to. He quoted January, 1876, as the date of his arrival in Sydney, but January, 1878, is probably the correct date [recte January 1877], as a few weeks later he made his debut with the Sydney Musical Union. He conducted the first public performance of Bach’s “Passion Music” in the Great Hall of the University, where so many concerts were held before the Town hall was opened in 1889, introduced the second act of “Tannhauser,” and organised a series of Haydn Chamber Music Concerts at the Royal Society’s rooms. Kretschmann in later life was by no means accurate as a violinist, so that for nearly 30 years his public appearances were confined to his crowded annual students’ concerts at the Town Hall, and to his Saturday pupils’ recitals at Paling’s Hall. His pupils, two or three of whom attained celebrity after tuition in Europe, included for violin Bessie Doyle (Eileen Mitchell O’Moore), Cyril Monk, and Rebe Kussman; and of pianists in the same way Elsie Stanley Hall, Yvonne Leverrier (Mme. Charvin), Madeleine Royle, Esther Kahn, Ruby Rich, Phyllis Hopwood Foldi, and May Summerbelle.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (22 January 1877), 2:; “SYDNEY MUSICAL UNION SOCIETY”, Evening News (26 January 1877), 2:; “FUNERALS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 April 1918), 5:; “DEATH OF JOSEF KRETSCHMANN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (1 May 1918), 8: ; “MUSIC AND DRAMA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 May 1918) 8:  



KRIEGSMANN, Caspar Rudolph
Professor of Music
Born Hanover, 1829/30
Active, Sydney by 1854
Died Sydney, 19 April 1903, aged 73

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (14 November 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 March 1855), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 January 1858), 8:; “INSOLVENCY COURT”, Empire (22 August 1860), 8:; “CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 June 1872), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 April 1903), 6:



KROM, John Herman
Professor of Music, Piano-forte, English Concertina, Singing, &c.
Active Melbourne, by 1855-59

References: “UNCLAIMED LETTERS”, South Australian Register (10 November 1849), 4:; “LIST OF LETTERS … Unclaimed”, The Argus (21 January 1850), 4:; “UNCLAIMED LETTERS”, South Australian Register (8 March 1850), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (19 February 1855), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 September 1855), 7:; [Advertisement], The Argus (2 December 1857), 4:; “CONCERT”, The Argus (2 December 1857), 4:; “Advertisement], The Argus (4 August 1858), 8:; “INSOLVENT COURT […] IN RE JOHN H. KRON”, The Argus (15 September 1858), 7:; “INSOLVENT COURT”, The Argus (14 February 1859), 5:



Bandmaster, cornet player, circus musician, manager (Kruger’s Variety and Minstrel Company), “musical manipulator” (musical glasses)
Active Adelaide, by 1887
Died ? Kewsick, SA, 29 November 1935, aged 71

Mount Gambier, 1890: Mr. Kruger is one of the most versatile members, and his performance on the musical glasses was particularly enjoyed. To play correctly on so many glasses, embracing all the notes in five or six octaves, requires a great deal of dexterity as well as good natural talent.

1908: A SPECIAL MARCH. Mr. Benno Kruger, bandmaster of the United Labor Party Band, has composed a special march, entitled “Labor,” which is to be played in the eight hours procession on Saturday next. The march opens with an inspiring introduction, leading into “The Song of Australia,” followed by a bold and massive bass solo, concluding with a trio. The whole makes a fine march, and reflects credit upon Mr. Kruger, under whose direction the United Labor Party Band is attaining a high state of proficiency.

References: “ROTUNDA CONCERT”, South Australian Register (29 October 1887), 6:; “KRUGER’S MINSTRELS”, Kapunda Herald (24 January 1890), 2:; “KRUGER’S MINSTRELS”, The Border Watch (24 May 1890), 2:; [Advertisement], Morning Bulletin (29 October 1892), 1:; [Advertisement], The Brisbane Courier (12 November 1902), 2:; “A SPECIAL MARCH”, The Advertiser (30 October 1908), 8:; “LABOR PARTY BAND CONCERT”, The Advertiser (10 February 1910), 10:; ? “DEATHS”, The Advertiser (2 December 1935), 14:



KRUSE, Herman
Orchestra leader, bandmaster (Kruse’s Band; German band; Full Band from the Royal Garden, Vauxhall)
Active Sydney, 1854

References: [Advertisement], Empire (10 October 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (14 October 1854), 2:; [Advertisement], Empire (28 October 1854), 1:; “SYNOPSIS OF MEETINGS, &c., FOR THE WEEK”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 October 1854), 5:; [Advertisement], Empire (2 November 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (15 November 1854), 1:; “OUR EVENING AMUSEMENTS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 November 1854), 5:



KRUSE, Johannes Secundus (John)
Born Melbourne, VIC, 22 March 1859
Died London, England, 14 October 1927


Obituary: The death is announced of Mr. Johann Kruse, the famous violinist. Johann Kruse was born in Bourke street, Melbourne, where his father had a pharmacy, in 1859, and at in early age he showed signs of unusual musical talent. His first public appearance was with the Philharmonic Society in Melbourne, when he was aged only nine years, and, as he continued to show aptitude with the violin, his parents sent him to Berlin in 1875 to study under Joachim at the Hochschule, where he became a professor. Joachim considered him one of his foremost pupils, and under his guidance Kruse became, in 1882, at the age of 23 years,   principal violinist and sub-conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Society. At this time he founded a string quartet which became famous. He returned to Australia on a short visit in 1885 and played in a concert tour with Miss Nellie Mitchell (Dame Nellie Melba) in Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane. Joachim's health had begun to fail at this time, and he recalled Kruse to relieve him at the Hochschule. Some years later he joined the famous Joachim quartet as second violin, and in 1895 he revisited Australia for a second time for a short season, this time playing with the Marshall Hall quartet. Johann Kruse left Germany in 1897 to live in England, and in London he founded his second quartet party, which gave a series of concerts at St. James's Hall. The Saturday Popular Concerts, which were famous in London at the end of the last century, came under his direction, and were so successful that he revived, with equal success, the “Classical Monday Pops,“ referred to by W. S. Gilbert in “The Mikado.“ In the same year, 1902, Johann Kruse organised a series of orchestral concerts, with Felix Weingartner as conductor, and in 1903 his Beethoven festival, consisting of eight concerts, met with tremendous support, and was repeated in the following year with a series of seven concerts, in which the pianist, Wilhelm Backhaus, who was in Melbourne late last year, assisted. Mr. W. W. Cobbett, a foremost critic, said of Kruse at this time:— “His experience is most extensive in chamber music. As a violinist, his staccato bowing and trill may be noted as of exceptional brilliancy.“ Since then Mr. Kruse spent most of his time in teaching, and several Australian pupils, the most famous of whom is Miss Gertrude Algar, studied under him. Some years ago the Melbourne University had negotiations with him at the time when the Ormond chair of music at the University Conservatorium was vacant, but an agreement was not reached. In a recent letter to his brother he expressed his intention of coming to Australia again. He is survived by his wife, who is in London, and a brother, Mr. J. A. Kruse, who for many years has carried on his late father's chemist's business at Hawthorn.

References: “FAMOUS VIOLINIST. Johann Kruse Dead. Born in Melbourne”, The Argus (18 October 1927), 17:

Resources:; Sally O’Neill, Kruse, Johann Secundus (1859–1927), Australian Dictionary of Biography 5 (1974); Papers of Johann Kruse [manuscript], NLA:



KUNZE, Karl Julius (Charles)
Arrived, 1 February 1850 (per Alfred)
Died Adelaide, 26 January 1868, aged 42

Summary: From his first concerts, Kunze was evidently one of Adelaide’s leading pianists, appearing as accompanist with many visiting concert artists.

References: ? “ARRIVED”, South Australian Register (2 February 1850), 3:; “CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC”, South Australian Register (3 May 1855), 3:; “MADAME CARANDINI AND M. EMILE COULON”, South Australian Register (9 July 1855), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (23 August 1855), 1:; “DEATHS”, The South Australian Advertiser (27 January 1868), 3:; “TOPICS OF THE DAY”, The South Australian Advertiser (27 January 1868), 3:


- L -


Cornet player, violinist, bandmaster
Born 1834 (parish of St. George's Hanover Square 1841 UK Census) 
Active Melbourne and Ballarat, 1855-65

English concertina player

Summary: Labalestrier was a regular cornet player in Fleury’s band first in Melbourne at the Salle de Valentino and later at the Montezuma in Ballarat in 1858. He also played with Fleury’s “Premiere Band of the Australian Colonies” for the Lavenu-Carandini company’s Ballarat opera season. At his Montezuma benefit in November 1857, it was announced: “Mons. Labalestrier will perform the Zerline, Bendigo, and Eclipse Polkas on the Cornet-a-Piston, during the evening.” The Bendigo Polka may well have been that of 1854 by another cornet player, Henry De Grey. In August 1861, Alfred Labalestrier was bandmaster of the Rangers Brass Band, and was last recorded as being in a legal battle against members of the Ballarat District Band in January 1865. By July 1866 he was at Canterbury, New Zealand, advertising as a “Professor of the Violin, Cornet, and English Concertina”. At Wellington in 1870, he was taken into custody “on suspicion of lunacy”. Mary Labalestrier, who died in Melbourne in 1899 at the age of 90, was the mother of the musicians, composer George Clutsam, and his brother Frederick Clutsam (see also SHIPPING, June 1881).

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (25 April 1855), 8:; [Advertisement], The Star (19 November 1857), 3:; “MONTEZUMA PROMENADE CONCERTS”, The Star (6 October 1858), 2:; [Advertisement], The Star (22 October 1858), 3:; [Advertisement], The Star (23 December 1858), 3:; “EASTERN POLICE COURT”, The Star (4 June 1860), 4:; [Advertisement], The Star (22 January 1861), 3:; [Advertisement], The Star (8 August 1861), 3:; “LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. THE BAND OF THE B. V. R. RANGERS”, The Star (14 October 1861), 1s:; “THE VOLUNTEER BAND”, The Star (15 May 1863), 3:; Ballarat and Ballarat District Directory (1865), 13, 97:; [News], The Ballarat Star (13 January 1865), 2:; [Advertisement], West Coast Times (12 July 1866), 3:; “RESIDENT MAGISTRATE’S COURT”, Evening Post (15 November 1870), 2:; “SHIPPING”, Otago Daily Times (1 June 1881), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (4 December 1899), 1:

Note: Major George De Winton (99th Regiment) later seems to have misremembered that, at Sydney Theatre in the late 1840s (Soldiering fifty years ago: Australia in 'the forties' (London: European Mail, 1898), 93): “Our leading lady was a Madame Labalastière [sic], whose somewhat aristocratic name was, I grieve to say, from difficulty in correct pronunciation, by many converted into Madam d--n and b---t her.”



Bass vocalist, composer
Born UK, 1834/35
Active Melbourne, by 1859
Died Camden, NSW, 21 January 1910, aged 75

Melbourne, December 1865: The famous bass air, “The trumpet shall sound,“ was sung by Mr. Labertouche, an amateur, who made his debut. He is a vocalist of much promise, for his possession of a splendid voice cannot be denied, but his execution was imperfect, and his mistakes too frequent. Those last were probably increased by the sudden and unexplained absence of the performer who was to play the trumpet obligato, which was undertaken at great disadvantage by Herr Schott, on the oboe.

Melbourne, January 1866: The Theatre Royal was crowded on Saturday night, when tho two first acts of I Puritani and Donizetti's opera buffa, L’Elisir d’Amore, were produced. I Puritani is almost strange to a Melbourne audience, having been so rarely performed here; and its introduction on Saturday was only to enable Mr. G. E. Labertouche, an amateur, to make his debut as Giorgio. In reviewing the performance, we may confine our remarks to this gentleman, for the other singers, especially Mr. Wharton, who was repeatedly hissed for his shortcomings, were so imperfect that the good nature of the hearers was tested to the utmost. From this condemnation we must exclude Mr. Loder and his orchestra, to whom the vocalists were often indebted for a veil over their deficiencies. Mr. Labertouche’s reception must have been as highly gratifying to himself as his performance was to his friends. No matter what a musical amateur has gone through in private, to appear in opera in public is perhaps the severest test that could be applied, and this gentleman has now proved his possession of faculties which might with study be ripened into powers not commonly possessed by those who have not made music a profession. His voice is a Strong baritone, deficient in fibre, but excellent in tone, and his vocalization, though wanting in energy, was much better than might have been expected. His part of Giorgio was throughout delivered correctly, and his acting was not without merit, although he was evidently not at ease. We need hardly add that he was frequently and loudly applauded.

References: “THE LEVEE”, The Argus (25 May 1859), 5:; “COMPLIMENTARY CONCERT TO HERR SCHMITT”, Bendigo Advertiser (13 February 1863), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (1 August 1865), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (3 August 1865), 8:; “THE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY'S CONCERT”, The Argus (8 November 1865), 5:; “MELBOURNE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, The Argus (26 December 1865), 5:; [News], The Argus (20 January 1866) , 5:; [News], The Argus (22 January 1866), 4:; “THE OPERA”, The Argus (5 February 1866), 5:; “THE MELBOURNE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY'S EXTRA CONCERT”, The Argus (18 April 1866), 5:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (21 February 1878), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (21 April 1882), 2:; “DEFALCATION AT SYDNEY. ARREST OF MR. G. E. LABERTOUCHE”, The Argus (10 February 1891), 5:; “The Labertouche Case”, Australian Town and Country Journal (21 February 1891), 13:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (24 January 1910), 6:  

Works: The Boort Schottische (1865) NO COPY IDENTIFIED



Violinist (“The Australian Paganini”), composer, arranger
Arrived Sydney, February 1865
Died Glenferrie, VIC, 5 July 1915

References: [Advertisement], Empire (13 February 1865), 1:; “TOPICS OF THE DAY”, The South Australian Advertiser (20 May 1865), 2:; [News], The Argus (13 April 1866), 5:; “CONTRADICTION OF THE LOUNGER”, The Cornwall Chronicle (19 March 1870), 13:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (5 November 1874), 10:; “THE SYDNEY MUSICAL UNION”, The Sydney Morning Herald (13 November 1879), 6:; “INSOLVENCY COURT”, The Argus (29 May 1886), 11:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (6 July 1915), 1:; “PERSONAL”, Broken Hill Miner (9 July 1915), 2:

Extant musical works:
The Weston and Hussey minstrels’ book of songs, Number 1 (edited by Frank Weston and N. La Feuillade) ([1869])
The Weston and Hussey minstrels’ book of songs, Number 2 (edited by Frank Weston and N. La Feuillade) ([1869])
Flying Squadron Galop (by N. La Feuillade, “late of H.M. Brig Arab”) ([1869])
Tommy Dodd Galop (by N. La Feuillade) ([1869])
For the old land’s sake (written &​ sung by Beaumont Read; music by N. La Feuillade) ([1885])
Our boys welcome home (words by W. H. Leake; composed by N. La Feuillade) ([1885])




LAGLAISE, Jean-Baptiste
Tenor singer, song composer
Born ? Belgium, 1826
Arrived Sydney (? from San Francisco, via Honolulu), by 22 February 1856
Departed Australia, ? after 11 January 1859

Summary: Laglaise probably came to Australia with Anna Bishop’s replacement musical director, George Loder; Laglaise had appeared as a member of an Italian Opera Troupe under Loder’s musical direction in California in 1854/55. In Sydney at the Prince of Wales Theatre, 23 February 1856, the last night of Bishop's season was also the “First appearance in Australia of the celebrated tenor, MONS. LAGLAISE, (who will appear for this night only)“ in “the Grand Opera of NORMA”. The latest Australian notice for Laglaise I've found is in January 1859 in Ballarat. Two original songs by Laglaise are documented, both in Adelaide in August-September 1858: Hearts and Souls (words; Byron; “Song composed in Adelaide by Mons. Laglaise”) (“English Song, composed in Adelaide by Mons. Laglaise, sung for the first time by Miss Rowe”) [Adelaide: Penman & Galbraith, 1858], and My Native Land (“English song composed in Adelaide by Mons. Laglaise, poetry by Lord Byron. Sung for the first time by Mons. Laglaise”).

 Addenda 2013 (from information kindly supplied by Alister Hardiman): Probably a Belgium by birth (his naturalization record indexed at Antwerp Police Records), he had married, Marie Lorquin (b. c.1830). They had at least 3 children, Ernest (b. Australia, 1858); Leon (b. France); and Marie (b. 1865 France), who married singer Charles Rene [Chs. Olivier Rene Bibaud] in 1899 after a divorce from first husband, the pianist Etienne Auguste Jean Monselet, youngest son of the journalist, Charles Monselet. Ernest was an ornithologist, Leon a botanist, both travelers. Ernest stayed in Paris, Leon became a citizen of the USA. Their maternal grandfather, Pierre Joseph Michel Lorquin had been a famous butterfly man (born Versailles, see his wiki for further info) and had journeyed to America for that pursuit. Late in life he published at least five books: Fantouches d’Opera (1880, and see below), Figurines dramatiques (1882), Pantins et Marionettes (1884), and two historical novels, Eureka (1885) and Lutèce (1888).

References: Birth year 1826 [catalogue data];“California“, The Musical World 11/1 (6 January 1855), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (22 February 1856), 1:; “HEARTS AND SOULS”, South Australian Register (23 August 1858), 1: “MUSIC”, South Australian Register (23 August 1858), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (24 September 1858), 1:; “CHARLIE NAPIER THEATRE”, The Star (Ballarat) (11 January 1859), 3:

After Australia: Later references include 1861-62, Annales du Théâtre-royal d’Anvers, 124: “Giovanni Laglaise, ténor léger”; Le Ménestrel 30-31 (1862), 411: “M. Laglaize, ténor au type béarnaise”; Le Guide musical 8-10 (1869): “M. Laglaize, ténor, a une voix gutturale et une façon de jouer la comédie qui nuisent beaucoup à son talent de chanteur”; see also Jean-Baptiste Laglaize, Fantoches d’opéra (Paris: Tresse, 1881), especially 82: “L’Australie est depuis longtemps tributaire des chanteurs italiens : Sydney leur prodigue ses bank-notes, tandis que l’aurifère Melbourne les sature de lingots. LaTasmanie, la Nouvelle-Zélande sont initiées aux partitions de Bellini, Rossini, Verdi et consorts. San-Francisco possède de deux thèâtres italiens, deux de plus qu’à Paris! Honolulu! ... Honolulu lui-même, vient de céder à l’entrainement, et, l’on m’assure que les Polynésiens viennent de voter une subvention en vue d’un thèâtre italien […].



LAING, Alexander
Fiddler, composer
Born Forfarshire, Scotland, 1792
Arrived Tasmania, 29 September 1813 (convict per Marquis of Wellington and Emu)
Died Sorell, TAS, 2 September 1868, aged 77

Summary (after SL-TAS): Alexander Laing was a soldier, convict, colonist, police constable in the Sorell district, a musician (fiddler) and composer. He joined the army in 1810, was charged with stealing and transported to Van Diemen’s Land in 1813, though he claimed to have served 7 years as a soldier in the 22nd Gordon Highlanders and been present at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain in 1812. He was sentenced to seven years and transported at the age of 23 on the Marquis of Wellington to NSW and the Emu. On the 19 March 1816 at St David’s, Hobart he married Esther Robertson (or Hester Roberts) aged 22 (convict, tried in Warwick, 1814, arrived on the Northampton, 1815, and Emu, 1816). In his journal in November 1816 he described how he was ordered to play the violin for the bushrangers, Michael Howe and his friends, when they visited his master’s house at Sorell. The violin had been hanging on the wall “in a green bag”, he noted. Laing was chief constable of in the Sorell (Pittwater) district 1819-38. He kept a diary, of which fragments survive (SL-TAS: NG1116: and compiled a fiddle manuscript (TAHO NS548/1/1:, featuring jigs, strathspeys, hornpipes, marches, reels and waltzes (many by Nathanial Gow, ancestor of the Tasmanian Packers), including some music titled (or retitled) to local Tasmanian identities. Many of these were dedicated to local personalities and their titles recall both the historical characters of early Tasmania and trace with their dates, the movement of Laing from one township to another over his career as a constable, a unique mid-colonial example of Australian fiddling.

Resources: Freda Gray, “Music of the early settlements of the 1800s”, Papers and Proceedings (Tasmanian Historical Research Association) 43/2 (June 1996), 59-62:; Peter MacFie and Steve &​ Marjorie Gadd, On the fiddle from Scotland to Tasmania, 1815-1863 : the life and music of Alexander Laing (1792-1868), convict, constable, fiddler and composer (Dulcot, Tas: Peter MacFie; Franklin, Tas: Steve and Marjorie Gadd, 2010):



LAING, David
Musical larcenist
Active Hobart, 1837

1837: David Laing was held to bail for further examination on a musical charge. Having evinced such a soul for music, that he was about marching off with all Band Major McLeod’s instruments.

References: “Hobart Town Police Court”, Colonial Times (13 June 1837), 8:



LAMAR, Monsieur de
Vocalist, pianist, professor of the pianoforte and singing (lately from Paris, pupil of Benderali, Stoepel, Turina, Martelli, &c.)
Active Sydney, August-October 1850

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (5 August 1850), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (8 August 1850), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (13 August 1850), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (5 September 1850), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (21 October 1850), 1:



LAMBLE, Samuel William Mann
Bass vocalist, teacher of singing and sol-fa
Born Trinidad, West Indies, 1838
Active Creswich, VIC, by 1861 (via Lancs., England, 1851 census)
Died Brighton, VIC, 13 September 1918, aged 80 years and 5 months

Summary: Lamble, who made his Melbourne debut in 1869 was the bass soloist in the first performance of Horsley’s Euterpe at the opening of the Melbourne Town Hall in August 1870.

Ballarat 1875: Outside Opera the two best known bassos in Victoria are, probably, Sam Lamble and B. T. Moroney, of Melbourne, but we have a Jones here, “the only Jones” who can sing bass here, and a member of the pro-Cathedral choir, who is in many people’s opinion better than either Lamble or Moroney.

References: “NEWS AND NOTES”, The Star (27 June 1863), 2:; “OPENING OF THE NEW TOWN HALL”, The Argus (10 August 1870), 5-6:; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 March 1875), 12:; [Advertisement], The Argus (14 August 1875), 12:; “BALLARAT”, Bendigo Advertiser (13 December 1879), 3:; “TONIC SOL-FA ASSOCIATION”, The Argus (18 November 1890), 7:; “WESLEYAN CHURCH FESTIVITIES”, Mornington Standard (8 February 1894), 2:; “MELBOURNE”, The Independent (8 February 1901), 12:; “Doncaster Glee Club”, Reporter (6 June 1902), 3:; “DEATHS”, Leader (21 September 1918), 55:



LAMBLE, Thomas James (brother of the above)
Music lithographer, music librarian (Philharmonic Society), conductor, professor of music
Active Melbourne, by 1875
Died South Melbourne, 16 September 1915

LAMBLE, Mary Ann
Pianist, organist
Died Hawthorn, 7 November 1900

Fitzroy 1875: Our Local Philharmonic Society gave their third concert on Thursday evening at the Town Hall Fitzroy. […] Giorza’s Mass No. 1, scored by Mr. Lamble, received full justice from both choir and orchestra. […] Mrs. Lamble did good service at the organ and pianoforte. The less said the better about the audience. We do not remember to have seen a poorer audience at a concert yet held in Collingwood or Fitzroy. This is to be regretted, and we can only conclude that the inhabitants of Fitzroy have not yet been imbued with a taste for high class music.

1876: NEW INSOLVENTS. Thomas James Lamble, of Napier street, Fitzroy, music lithographer. Causes of insolvency -Want of constant employment and illness of family. Liabilities, £254 18s 2d; assets, £50 6s 6d ; deficiency, £204 11s. 8d. Mr Jacomb, assignee. 

References: “LOCAL NEWS”, Mercury [Fitzroy] (15 May 1875), 4:; “THE MAYOR AND MR. LAMBLE”, The Argus (30 October 1875), 5:; “NEW INSOLVENTS”, The Argus (7 February 1876), 5:; “THE TONIC SOL-FA SYSTEM. TO THE EDITOR”, The Argus (29 May 1890), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (6 May 1893), 6:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (8 November 1900), 1:; “Seven Years Chronic Cataract of Eyes Cured”, Barrier Miner (17 November 1906), 3:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (18 September 1915), 11:



LA MONT, Mrs. J. S.
Amateur composer, songwriter, school teacher
Active Hobart, 1859

Musical work: Our own Tasmanian Home (National Song) (words: E. La Mont; “Composed and dedicated by permission to Lady Young”) (Hobart: J. Walch, [1859])

References: “NATIONAL SONG”, The Hobart Town Daily Mercury (25 October 1859), 2:; [Advertisement], Launceston Examiner (16 February 1861), 3: “Our own Tasmanian Home, Words and music by Mrs. and Miss Lamont”); “OIL PAINTINGS”, The Mercury (1 January 1883), 2:

See also:



LAMONT, Madame
Contralto vocalist, Professor of Singing and the Pianoforte
Active Sydney, by 1855; until ? 1880

Summary: Having first appeared as an associate artist for Miska Hauser in April 1855, Lamont suffered “a long and serious illness” before she first advertised as a teacher in July 1856.

References: [Advertisement], The Empire (18 April 1855), 1:; “MISKA HAUSER’S SECOND GRAND CONCERT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 April 1855), 5:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (24 April 1855), 1:; [Advertisement], Empire (30 July 1856), 1:; “MADAME CAILLY’S CONCERT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 August 1856), 6:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 December 1859), 12:; “PARRAMATTA. PUBLIC SCHOOL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 December 1868), 5:; ? “CLEARANCES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (28 February 1880), 4:



Active Launceston, 1829 (but perhaps fictional)

References: “Daring Robbery”, Launceston Advertiser (20 July 1829), 3:



Soprano vocalist (St. James’s choir)
Active Sydney, 1827-28

1827: The person who sings a second also in an evening, often begins and continues to lead, in lieu of following Mrs. Lancaster. If the singers would but let the last person really lead, and not only sing under her, but also after her, they would improve the evening choir much. In the morning, Mrs. L. in the piano parts, refrains too much. She need not be afraid of being a little louder in the piano parts. If her pronunciation were as pleasing as her notes, she would be entitled unqualified praise. But at present, she pronounces badly.

1828: THE choir of St. James’s, after attempting Jubilate Deo, in which they failed, have lately ventured in the evening upon Deus Misereatur. They succeed in this just as perfectly as they fail in the other. Both pieces are exquisite compositions. If a preference be to be given, it is perhaps to Jubilate Deo, because while the harmony, originality, and adaptation of sound to sense, are equal to those of Deus misereatur, the chorus’s are more contrasted, and consequently the effect is greater. In Jubilate Deo, we can never hear Mrs. Lancaster, whose voice, from its strength and clear ness, is well adapted to anthems. In Deus Misreatur, it is strong and effective. We cannot understand how the same talents, which succeed so well, in the one anthem, fail so completely in the other. The counter in Jubilate Deo appears to be the air, because Mrs. L. and those who ought to sing, the air, cannot be heard. Hence the fine effect of a counter is lost, for the counter makes a bad first part. If the first and second part were full, the voice of the counter-singer, which is really good if he dare put forth his strength, would produce a delightful effect. But by itself, the counter of course sounds artificially, and makes poor harmony.

References: “ST. JAMES’S CHURCH”, The Monitor (3 September 1827), 3:; [News], The Sydney Monitor (11 October 1828), 5:



Composer, author
Active Australia, 1850 (returned to London by 1852)

Summary: Lancelott's 1852 account of his travels, Australia as it is, has several comments on music and music making in the colonies, notably on corroborees (vol. 1 , 24-25), music in Adelaide (vol. 1, 141), and in “free and easy” public houses in Melbourne (vol. 2, 112-114). While in Adelaide in 1850, he set to music what was described as an “anti-road and dray tax song” when it was publihsed by Charles Platts in July. Sung at a meeting of thje Anti-dray tax League the previous month, it was We’ve sever’d ourselves from our friends and home ( “a song set to music dedicated to […] Alexander Anderson, Esq.” [Chairman of the Anti-Dray Tax League]). The words only survive, beginning:

We've severed ourselves from our friends at home,
And far over the ocean we’ve come, my boys,
To reap from our toil in this sunny soil,
A better reward than at home, my boys […]

Lancelott described himself as a “mineralogical surveyor in the Australian colonies”; whether or not he is the composer F. Lancelott publihsed in England and America 1840s- 1860s is unclear, as is any relation with the composer Lancelott whose song Trust her not! (“translated from the German by Longfellow; music by Lancelott”) was a Musical Supplement to The Adelaide Miscellany (3 December 1868).

References: “ANTI-DRAY TAX LEAGUE”, South Australian Register (28 June 1850), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian (2 July 1850), 3:

Works: Australia as it is: its settlements, farms, and gold fields (London: Colburn and Co., 1852):
Vol. 1:
Vol. 2:



Pianist, organist, conductor (Adelaide Philharmonic Society)
Active Adelaide, 1874-1879, ? 1883

References: [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (17 October 1876), 1:; “MR. LANDERGAN”, South Australian Register (2 April 1879), 6:; [News], The South Australian Advertiser (11 April 1879), 5:; “MARRIAGES”, South Australian Register (23 October 1880), 4:;  “MR. LANDERGAN”, South Australian Register (18 May 1883), 4:



LANE, Miss

Active Sydney, 1838-39

Summary: Mr. Lane was an instrumentalist at the Oratorio in Sydney in February 1838. According to eyewitness Columbus Fitzpatrick, Miss Lane sang for James Reid at St. Mary’s in 1839: “I have seen Dr. Reid, who was a great man, assisted by his sisters and Miss Lane and a great body of singers”.

(1838): Mr. Wallace, as usual was the star of the instrumental performers, and was assisted by Mr W.’s brother, Messrs Deane, Cavendish, Edwards, Spyer, Josephson, Lane, and the full Band of the 50th regiment.

References: “THE ORATORIA”, The Sydney Herald (5 February 1838), 2:

Bibliography: C. J. Duffy (ed.), Catholic religious and social life in the Macquarie era: as portrayed in the letters of Columbus Fitzpatrick (1810-1878) (Sydney: Catholic Press Newspaper Company, Ltd., 1966), 17-19; Patrick O‘Farrell, Documents in Australian Catholic history: 1788-1883 (Sydney: G. Chapman, 1969), 32-33



LARDELLI, Guglielmo (W. H.; William)
Pianist, teacher, organist, composer
Arrived Sydney, 23 February 1881 (per Aconcagua, from London, via Plymouth, 8 January)
Died Charters Towers, QLD, 7 July 1910

References: “ARRIVALS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (24 February 1881), 4:; “THE MAYOR’S QUARTERLY BANQUET”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 March 1881), 6:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 April 1881), 6:; “Maitland Philharmonic Society’s Concert”, The Maitland Mercury (29 November 1883), 8:; “PERSONAL”, The Northern Miner (8 July 1910), 5:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 July 1910), 6:



LARK, Francis B. (Bothamley)
Active Sydney, 1888

1888: From Messrs. Paling and Co., Sydney, we have “La Reine des Lis” waltz, by Francis B, Lark, which has three good points, viz., a pretty title-page, clear print, and a worthy object in publication - it being issued “in aid of the Queen’s Fund, 1888.” That object naturally inspires the desire to view the composition favourably, but it so abounds in error, showing that the composer is unacquainted with the simplest rudiments of musical notation and grammnr, that it would be bettor for the fund to remain unbenefited than that the copies of the waltz should be distributed. Publishers have responsibilities as well as others, and it would be well if those in the colonies would take steps to acquire the honourable reputation of those in other countries. The least that should be expected is that they should refuse to issue what violates the recognised canons of good taste and grammar; while the country would be benefited if something higher than this were aimed at.

References: “Births”, The Sydney Morning Herald (6 February 1883), 1:; “Deaths”, The Sydney Morning Herald (19 October 1887), 1:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (12 May 1888), 9:



Pianist (pupil of Frederick Kellerman and Alice Charbonnet-Kellermann), composer
Active Sydney, 1895

References: “CONSERVATOIRE DE MUSIQUE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 December 1895), 3:; “MISS LARNER’S RECITAL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (6 September 1897), 3:; “MISS LARNER’S RECITAL”, Evening News (23 September 1897), 7:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (26 February 1898), 4:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (2 September 1899), 4: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (2 March 1901), 2:

Works: Wheel Waltz (composed by Lydia Larner; Dedicated to the N.S.W. Cyclists’ Union) (Sydney: W.H. Paling &​ Co., c1899)

See also: Le train du diable (galop de concert par Alice Charbonnet-Kellermann; Dedicated to Miss Lydia Larner A.A.M.A.)



LASCELLES, Charles (Charles James Lascelles GRAY)
Buffo vocalist, pianist, chorus trainer, composer
Arrived Adelaide, 13 May 1868 (from San Francisco, via Hong Kong)
Departed Sydney, 7 August 1875 (per Osyth, via Melbourne and Cape Town, for London)
Died South Africa, 1883

December 1865: The Alta California of the 4th says: The Academy of Music was well filled last evening, on the occasion of Madame Anna Bishop’s first ginnd concert, and the gratification of the audience was unbounded. […]  Mr. Charles Lascelles, the vocalist and pianist, completely surprised the audience. His singing of the duet “Robin Rough”, in two voices, bass and tenor, was one of the most astonishingly successful efforts in vocalisation which we have ever heard.

Sydney, September 1868: Mr Charles Lascelles who, besides acting as accompaniist, played two pianoforte solos, which, though not affording grounds for a conclusive judgment on his ability, displayed a freedom, taste, and boldness, which suggested a competency to deal with better subjects […] [Bishop’s] arduous duties were relieved by the alternate appearance of Mr. Lascelles in buffo songs of which the seleclion was very judicious and those given by him with sufficient breadrh of humour and point as to  provoke mirth without offending the most scrupulous taste. He sang “Margaretta”, “Simon tho Cellarer”, “Molly Bawn”,“ Hood’s “Visit of the Skinners”, Parry’s “Blue Beard”, “So very peculiar”, dislaying a humour and peculiar vocal effects that rendered the songs very entertaining.

Obituary: News has been received in Adelaide by the Messageries steamer of the death of Charles Lascelles, the well-known opera singer, who died at Maritzburg about six weeks ago. The real name of the deceased was Gray. He was about 60 years of age, and was a native of the south of England. Mr. Lascelles first visited Australia as accompanist to Madame Anna Bishop, on her second tour to these colonies, and was for many years a valuable member of the Lyster Opera troupe, particularly as chorus-master.

Obituary: The news has just come of ther death of Mr. Charles Lascelles, at Natal, in South Africa. Mr Lascelles was well known in these colonies, whither he first came about 13 years ago with Madame Anna Bishop on her second visit to this part of the world. He was a very capable vocalist, a competent musician, and a singularly clever artist, his forte in this latter acquirement taking the direction ot caricature. Like many other men of remarkable talent, his habits were eccentric, and his way of life fitful. He was an amusing companion, for he had seen a great deal of the world, and he took a cynical view of humanity, a view, however, which did not prevent him from dwelling upon its grotesque aspects. He was with us when opera bouffe was first introduced here, and he was the first Prince Paul in “The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein”, or, as we know it more familiarly, “The Grand Duchess”.  He wandered about the world a good deal after he left Australia, and for some time he had been in various parts of South Africa, where, most recently, his fortunes had been at a very low ebb. With all his faults and failings, he will not be altogether unpleasantly remembered in this city.

References: “MADAME ANNA BISHOP”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 December 1865), 3:; “MADAME ANNA BISHOP”, Launceston Examiner (13 February 1866), 5:; “HONOLULU”, The Mercury (7 May 1866), 3:; “WRECK OF THE BARQUE LIBELLE”, The Mercury (30 August 1866), 2:; “WRECK OF THE BARQUE LIBELLE WITH MADAME ANNA BISHOP AND TROUPE ON BOARD”, Empire (15 October 1866), 2:; “ARRIVAL OF THE ENGLISH MAIL”, Border Watch (13 May 1868), 3:; “MADAME ANNA BISHOP’S CONCERT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (25 September 1868), 5:; [News], Australian Town and Country Journal (14 August 1875), 13:; [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (16 October 1883), 7:; [News] , The Argus (17 October 1883), 6:; “MORE QUICK PASSAGES”, Evening Post (21 November 1883), 2:



LASKI, Henri

Pseudonym of Thomas Edward BULCH



LAU, Hermann
Vocalist, instrumentalist, composer
Active Grafton, NSW, 1862-66

Grafton April 1862: The “novelty,“ and if we may judge from the tumultuous applause of the audience, the “hit“ of the evening's entertainment, was Mr. Lau's exhibition of skill in playing tho German accordion, and we were really surprised, to see how much can, be made of so homely an instrument. The addition of bells, an invention of Mr. Lau's, had a very pleasing and exhilarating effect - especially in the “Remembrances of New South Wales“ composed by the performer. 

References: “CONCERT AT THE SCHOOL OF ARTS”, Clarence and Richmond Examiner (8 April 1862), 2:; [News], Süd Australische Zeitung (3 September 1862), 2:; [Advertisement], Clarence and Richmond Examiner (21 October 1862), 3:; “CONCERT”, Clarence and Richmond Examiner (4 November 1862), 2:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (18 June 1863), 1:; [Advertisement], Clarence and Richmond Examiner (3 April 1866), 1:; ? “THE GOOMBUNGEE SHOW. A LARGE GATHERING”, The Brisbane Courier (11 September 1905), 5:



LAURENT, George Frederick (also John LAWRENCE; James LAWRENCE)
Vocalist, convict
Born London, 1795
Arrived Sydney (1), 25 April 1815; (2) 6 January 1820 (per Michael from India)
Free Sydney, by September 1833; further conviction 1836-53?; active Sydney, early 1859
Died Collingwood, VIC, 1 September 1863

Summary: “George Frederick Laurent, from  colonial sentence” was awarded a certificate of freedom during the week of 26 September 1833, and the following week appeared in a concert at Parramatta. He was perhaps the Mr. Laurent who advertised a concert and ball in Hobart in January 1834. Certainly he was back in Sydney in July 1836, when, having been convicted of stealing a cask of beer, he was sentenced to a further 7 years transportation to a penal settlement. If Norfolk Island, he may have first met Charles Packer there (see below). He was probably not however the proprietor of Laurent’s in Melbourne in 1854, named presumably after the Londoner Henry Laurent. However, “Formerly of the Theatre Royal, George-street”, he presented his own concert in Sydney 1859, with assistance from Charles Packer, Madame Lamont, Flora Harris, Herr Wilhelm Carl Schmitt (“solo violinist Munich”), and Mr. Marmaduke Henry Wilson (“pianist to Lady Amelia Keith Jackson, Lower Walmer”).

1833: [ADVERTISEMENT.] - Parrramatta Concert. - The Concert on Friday night, at Nash’s Long Room, was respectably attended, but not crowded, under the direction of Mr. LEWIS. The much admired song of the “Cold Flinty Rock,” [Braham] was sung by a gentleman of the name of G. F. Laurent, in a most masterly style, with great applause; Mr. Meredith sang his comic Songs admirably; the whole of the performance went off with great satisfaction to the audience.

1840: Norfolk Island [...] A play has been allowed to be performed by the prisoners, to amuse their companions. A prisoner, I think of the name of Laurent, was the chief promoter and performer of this. Some of the colonists in all probability have heard of this hero of the Norfolk Island stage, before today. Now, are the prisoners transported to be amused with this man and his companions absurdities on the stage? Has not frequenting a play house been the means of sending many to a penal colony? Do not temptations to sin and crime abound in such places? Yet here, at this place of fearful punishment, plays are not only allowed, but encouraged to be performed; and the very room where public worship is held, was elected as the place for Laurent and his friends to have their stage erected, and to amuse the prisoners with rant and buffoonery.

References: “CERTIFICATES”, The Sydney Gazette (22 March 1826), 3:; “NETTLETON’s”, The Monitor (7 July 1826), 8:; “QUARTER SESSIONS - (Monday)”, The Australian (12 August 1826), 3:; “[ADVERTISEMENT]”, The Sydney Herald (7 October 1833), 2:; “CERTIFICATES OF FREEDOM”, The Sydney Herald (26 September 1833), 4:; “[ADVERTISEMENT.]—Parramatta Concert”, The Sydney Herald (7 October 1833), 2:; [Advertisement], Colonial Times (28 January 1834), 3:; “THURSDAY”, The Sydney Monitor (9 July 1836), 3:; “Norfolk Island. THE SOCIAL SYSTEM. No.1. To the Editor”, The Sydney Gazette (25 June 1840), 3:; “NORFOLK ISLAND. PENAL DISCIPLINE”, The Hobart Town Courier (24 July 1840), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (29 January 1859), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (5 February 1859), 1:

Other references: [1] Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: LAURENT, George Frederick. Per “St Michael”, 1819; 1820 Jan 6: Convict transported from India per “St Michael” (Reel 6018; 4/3521 pp.167, 243); 1823 Oct 15: On lists of prisoners transported to Port Macquarie per “Sally” (Reel 6019; 4/3864 pp.78, 436-7); 1824 Oct 8: Re list of prisoners to return to Sydney (Reel 6019; 4/3864 p.184);
[2] SL-NSW, Dixson MS Q168, Norfolk Island convict papers, ca. 1842-1867: [includes Laurent’s MS memoir]

Resources: Robert Jordan, “Blind Larry: the Jewish actor as habitual criminal”, Australian Jewish Historical Society Journal 19/4 (June 2010), 3-26 



Conductor, composer, poet
Born St. Kilda, VIC, 2 May 1867
Died St. Kilda, VIC, 22 May 1953, aged 86

NLA Persistent Identifier:

References: “NEW MUSIC”, The Argus (3 November 1885), 9:; “CRICKET”, The Mercury (30 January 1890), 3:; [News], The Argus (24 October 1890), 4:; “FAREWELL CONCERT TO MR. HAMILTON CLARKE”, The Argus (22 July 1891), 6:; “NEW MUSIC”, South Australian Register (5 April 1897), 3:; “AN AUSTRALIAN HYMN”, The Argus (1 January 1901), 4: “Poet of the people dies”, The Argus (23 May 1953), 5:; “A tribute. By BIDDY ALLEN”, The Argus (23 May 1953), 5:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (23 May 1953), 18:

Resources: Valerie Kent, Lavater, Louis Isidore (1867–1953), Australian Dictionary of Biography 10 (1986)



LAVENU, Lewis Henry
Pianist, cellist, conductor, arranger, composer
Born London, c.1818
Arrived Sydney, 11 May 1853 (per Abyssinia, from San Francisco, 3 March)
Died Sydney, 1 August 1859, aged 41 or 42



(Summary, after Wikipedia): Son of the London music seller and publisher, Lewis Augustus Lavenu (c.1867-1818), and his second wife Eliza. After Lavenu senior’s death, Eliza went into partnership with the violinist Nicolas Mori (1796-1839), whom she married in 1826. Born well before this marriage, their eldest son, the composer Frank Mori (1820-1873) was thus Lewis Henry’s stepbrother. The family business traded as “Mori & Lavenu” until Lewis Henry sold his interest in it to his partner Robert Hosdon in May 1844. Lavenu, brought up in music by his stepfather, studied at the Royal Academy of Music under Bochsa, and later with Charles Lucas, George Alexander Macfarren, and Cipriani Potter in composition, cello, and piano. Between August 1840 and January 1841 Lavenu (assisted by his half-brother Frank) managed Liszt’s tours of the British Isles. Lavenu married Julia Blossett, daughter of Col. John Blossett, head of the British expedition to assist Simon Bolivar in the war of independence in Venezuela. One of his daughters was the actress Ethel Lavenu (1842-1917), who was mother of the silent screen actor Tyrone Power, Sr., and grandmother of the Hollywood film star Tyrone Power. In November 1846, Lavenu's Loretta; A Tale of Seville,, a grand opera in three parts with libretto by Alfred Bunn, premiered at Drury Lane Theatre, with Anna Bishop as Loretta. After falling into insolvency in 1848, Lavenu became the conductor of the Irish singer Catherine Hayes, first in Britain, and then the United States (1851–52) and Australia.

Obituary: DEATH OF LEWIS HENRY LAVENU. OUR readers will learn with surprise and deep regret that Mr. Lewis Henry Lavenu, the late talented Conductor of the University Festival, expired yesterday morning, at his residence, Horbury Terrace, Macquarie-street. He had been ill for some days, but owing to pressure of business, connected with the University Festival and the Prince of Wales Theatre, had neglected to take care of his health, and had even for some time omitted to take food. His illness was not at first of a dangerous character, and the symptoms - vomiting, pain, and constipation - yielded to medical treatment, but on Sunday evening a fit of an epileptic character came on; from excessive pain he became occasionally delirious, and imagined himself still conducting a musical force. Yesterday morning, however, he rallied a little, and about an hour before his death rose from his bed and expressed his determination to go to rehearsal; shortly afterwards what was considered a favourable symptom took place, and gave some slight hope; but his sufferings had been so acute, and his nervous system was so completely exhausted, that nature succumbed, and he breathed his last about 11 o’clock. Mr. Lavenu’s abilities as a musician were of the highest order, and in the many musical entertainments over which it had been his lot to preside he was eminently successful; his death will prove a serious loss to the musical portion of the community, by whom his talents have been appreciated and acknowledged. At the period of his decease, he was, we believe, somewhere about 41 or 42 years of age. Mr. Lavenu was the son of the well-known publisher of music of that name, who formerly resided in Edward-street, Portman Square, and whose widow was subsequently married to Mori, the eminent violinist. By Mori the lamented subject of this notice was at an early age placed in the Royal Academy of Music, where, under the system, of tuition carried out in that admirable institution, he soon gave ample evidence of his aptitude and talent for the divine art. His abilities as a composer were displayed when still a mere youth, in his opera of Loretta - performed at the St. James’s Theatre with considerable success, and he held diplomas as professor of violoncello, piano-forte, and for composition. Mr. Lavenu was very felicitous in his ballad compositions, amongst which “By the banks of Guadalquiver” and the popular “Molly Asthore” stand pre -eminent in the degree of  favour with which they have been received by the musical public. He was the first man who brought Liszt, the great pianist, from Ratisbon, in Germany; and was at one time engaged by Biel as musical conductor through the English provinces during the tours of Grisi, Mario, and others; subsequently he was engaged as musical conductor to Miss Catherine Hayes, and travelled with her as such during that lady’s professional visits, to the United States, California, Australia, and India; and we think the justice of our award will scarcely be questioned when we state that much of that lady’s success may be attributed to the valuable assistance she derived from Mr. Lavenu in all matters connected with the orchestral department. In that branch of his profession he undoubtedly ranked very high; his practice as a violoncellist in the orchestra of the Academy, under Lindley, having no doubt contributed much to the acquirement of that ready tact and skill which he displayed in this difficult branch of the musical art. He was a very good pianist, his skill in that respect being chiefly confined to the unobtrusive but delicate and difficult duties of an accompanyist. His love of music was very intense, and his thorough knowledge of all its branches may be inferred from the fact that he arranged the score and adapted the opera of Il Trovatore, for a full orchestral representation, from a pianoforte copy. Up to the time of his illness he was busily engaged in arranging the operas of Rigoletto, Traviata, and Ernani; the score of the last named opera having been fully completed by him for representation. It is a somewhat singular fact that many great musicians have, shortly before death, composed those mournful strains with which their departure from this world is associated; such as Mozart’s “Requiem”, Weber’s “Last Waltz”, and many others that will be readily brought to mind; without seeking to institute any comparison we might refer to one portion of the overture to Trovatore composed by Mr. Lavenu, in which the most melancholy and plaintive strains are introduced - not suggested by the music of the opera - this, we believe, is one of his latest compositions. Mr. Lavenu was much esteemed by his professional friends, many of whom watched over him during his last hours, for his kindliness of manner, and the urbanity which always characterised his intercourse with them. It may not perhaps be deemed irrelevant to mention as a somewhat singular circumstance, that Mr. C. S. Packer, who three years ago followed to the tomb the remains of his own master in the orchestral branch of his studies at the Royal Academy of Music – the celebrated Bochsa - will, to-day, perform the same sad duty to one who was one of his own earliest pupils in the same institution. The funeral of the deceased gentlemen is appointed to take place this afternoon at two o'clock; and it is understood that besides his professional brethren - by whom he was sincerely respected - his remains will be followed to the grave by members of the University and the Festival Committee. From his late residence the funeral cortege will proceed to Christchurch, where a portion of the burial service will be read, and a short selection from the oratorio of the Messiah sung ; the body will then be conveyed to the Cemetery at Newtown, to be placed beside the resting-place of the greatest musical genius that ever came upon our shores - the Chevalier Bocsha. Mr. Poole, out of respect to the deceased gentleman, has closed the Prince of Wales Theatre for this evening, and we are requested to state that, in consequence of the lamented and sudden death of Mr. Lavenu, the Band of the 12th Regiment will not perform in the Botanic Gardens this afternoon.

Australian works:
The Hellespont Polka (“composed and dedicated to Captain Watts and the officers of the screw steamship Hellespont”) ([Sydney: Henry Marsh, 1853])
Cleopatra Polka (“Composed and dedicated to Robert McKean, Esq.”) (Sydney: H. Marsh and Co., [1853])
Solo Violoncello On Airs from Somnambula: [Advertisement]: “MR. LAVENU’S GRAND CONCERT”, The Courier (8 October 1853), 3:
It reminds me of thee (ballad; “composed expressly for Madame Sara Flower”; “Sung by Madame Sara Flower […] dedicated to Mrs. Stephen H. Marsh”) (Sydney: Henry Marsh, [1854])
I cannot sing tonight (ballad; words: Haynes Bailey; composed by Lavenu for his pupil Maria Carandini; “Sung with great success by Madame Carandini”) (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, [1857])
A Tribute to Australia (song) (words: F. H. Dicker; for Catherine Hayes): “MISS HAYES’ CHARITY FAREWELL CONCERT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (18 October 1854), 5:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 October 1854), 1:
Serenade (for orchestra; on popular ballads): [Advertisement], The Argus (1 November 1854), 8:
Ida May (“new—composed by Mr. Lavenu for Mr. White” [of Rainer’s Ethiopian Serenaders]): [Advertisement]: “FOR FOUR NIGHTS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 June 1855), 1:
My Molly Asthore (“Ballad (new version) as sung by Catherine Hayes”) (Sydney: H. Marsh, 1855; The Australian Cadeau No 17 (22 September 1855)
Molly Asthore (“sung by Miss Catherine Hayes”) (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, [1857?])
Molly Asthore (“Composed for and sung by Miss Catherine Hayes”; with cover portrait of Lavenu and printed signature”) ( Sydney: J. R. Clarke, [1859]) (Lavenu memorial edition)
Kate Kearney, or the Lakes of Killarney (“The music composed and arranged by M. Lavenu”): [Advertisement]: “COPPIN’S OLYMPIC”, The Argus (21 February 1856), 8:
Queen of the West (“In a few days will be published […] both poetry and music, by the late Mr. Lavenu”) (composed for Madame Carandini; accompaniment by Charles Packer”) (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1859)
Once upon a time there were two kings (“The characteristic incidental music composed, selected, and arranged by L. Lavenu, Esq.”): [Advertisement]: “ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (15 February 1859), 1:
THE VOCAL GEMS OF IL TROVATORE (“arranged expressly for the publisher by the late L. H. Lavenu”): 1 Ah! I have sighed to rest me (Ah! Che la morte); 2 Home to our Mountains (Ai nostri monti); 3 Tempest of the Heart (Il balen del suo sorriso); 4 Breeze of the night (D’amor sull ali rosee); 5 Ah! Yes, thou’rt mine (Ah! Si ben mio); 6 In the combat (Mal reggendo) (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, [1859])

References: Liszt, Lavenu, Mori concert program (16 September 1840):; “AMERICAN EXTRACTS”, Empire (21 January 1852), 3:; [News], Empire (12 May 1853), 2:; “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, Empire (12 May 1853), 2:; “DEATH OF LEWIS HENRY LAVENU”, The Sydney Morning Herald (2 August 1859), 5:

Resources: h



LAVER, William Adolphus
Violinist, music teacher, music editor, composer
Born Castkemaine, VIC, 20 August 1866
Died Kinglake, VIC, 2 July 1940


Resources: Thérèse Radic, Laver, William Adolphus (1866–1940), Australian Dictionary of Biography 10 (1986)  



see George Frederick LAURENT (above)



LAWS, Horace
Vocalist, conductor (Longford Philharmonic Society)
Active Longford, TAS, by 1853
Died London, 12 October 1888, aged 57

Summary: Secretary of the Longford Philharmonic Society at its foundation in September 1858, Horace Laws was also, with John Adams, among its first conductors. He left for Melbourne in September 1866.

References: [Advertisement], Launceston Examiner (23 September 1858), 3:; “THE LONGFORD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, Launceston Examiner (5 January 1860), 2:; “THE LONGFORD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, Launceston Examiner (8 May 1860), 3:; “THE CONCERT”, Launceston Examiner (31 May 1860), 3:; [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (7 July 1860), 2:; “TOWN TALK AND TABLE CHAT”, The Cornwall Chronicle (1 August 1860), 4:; “CONCERT OF THE LONGFORD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, Launceston Examiner (4 October 1860), 3:; “LONGFORD”, Launceston Examiner (27 September 1866), 2:; “Mr. Laws’ reply”, Launceston Examiner (27 September 1866), 2:; “Deaths”, The Argus (28 November 1888), 1:; “Deaths”, Launceston Examiner (1 December 1888), 1:; “LONGFORD”, Launceston Examiner (29 April 1895), 6:



Vocalist, actor, theatrical manager
Born Edinburgh, Scotland, 1 December 1801
Arrived Sydney, 27 February 1837 (per Lady McNaughten, from Leith, 9 May via Hobart)
Departed Adelaide, 1863 (for New Zealand) 
Died New Zealand, 8 June 1879

LAZAR, Rachel (See MOORE, Rachel)
Vocalist. dancer, actor

LAZAR, Samuel
Opera and theatrical manager, playwright
Born Sydney, 1838  
Died Cook’s River Asylum, NSW, 14 November 1883

Summary: The actor-manager John Lazar, a key figure in early Australian theatre (and thus also in music), was himself only an occasional singer, but performed comic and sentimental songs nevertheless. During his first Sydney season, at the Theatre Royal in Sepetmber 1837 a performance of Selby’s 1835 London comedy Catching an Heiress featured Lazar playing Tom Twig “in which character he will sing the original Song of The Statue Fair, and an entire new Medley Baron Sowererouizensausengen”. That month too he sang the very popular Scots song Lord Ullin’s Daughter. In Adelaide in 1849, the press lamented “a low piece of travestie injudiciously introduced by Mr. Lazar, purporting to be a buffo, in other words, a clap-trap parody on the opera of Cinderella.” His daughter Rachel married the violinist Andrew Moore.

References: “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, The Colonist (28 September 1837), 7:; [News], The Sydney Gazette (16 May 1837), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (4 September 1837), 1: ; [Advertisement], Empire (15 September 1837), 2:; “MR. GRIFFITH’S CONCERT”, South Australian (16 March 1849), 3:; “THE LATE MR. JOHN LAZAR”, West Coast Times (11 June 1879), 2:; “The AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS”, Australian Town and Country Journal (5 July 1879), 28:; “OBITUARY”, The Sydney Morning Herald (29 November 1883), 11:

Resources: G. L. Fisher, Lazar, John (1801-1879), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967)



Active Perth, 1845

References: “Performance of Sacred Music”, Inquirer (14 May 1845), 1:; ? “DEATHS”, The Inquirer (19 May 1869), 2:



LEE, David
Professor of Music, music retailer, organist, organ builder, music publisher, composer
Born Armagh, Ireland, 20 March 1837
Arrived Melbourne, 26 July 1864 (per Morning Light)
Died South Yarra, Melbourne, 12 May 1897, aged 60

Summary: Brother of Harcourt LEE, David Lee was active in Melbourne by 1865, as a concert artist and as organist of St. Luke’s Emerald Hill and associated with the Melbourne Philharmonic. In Collins-Street east in September 1866, “Mr. David Lee and Mr. Samuel Kaye (professors of music)” opened a Pianoforte and Harmonium Warehouse (see entry on Samuel KAYE for details of their publishing business). Lee and Kaye served as conductor and organist of the Melbourne Philharmonic, and later briefly shared responsibilities as City Organist, a role taken over by Lee alone after Kaye’s departure. According to organist George PEAKE (quoted in Carne, scanned edition, 27):

“Mr. Lee was a musician of undoubted ability, shrewd, business like and full of energy. Mainly by his own personal exertions and natural gifts he rose from a bank clerk to become one of the most successful and popular musicians in the Colony. Leaving the banking business, he became a piano tuner, organist of Collins Street Independent Church, Conductor of the Philharmonic Society, City Organist, music seller and organ builder. He was ever on good terms with himself, bright and cheery in disposition, and generally successful in impressing his friends with the value of his ability. His advice to the chorus ‘to keep one eye on the Conductor and one on the music’ came bubbling to the surface with great frequency, much to his own enjoyment. His keen business instinct possibly affected his musical judgment, while his bonhomie and personal popularity probably disarmed criticism, much to his own disadvantage as a public musician. His musical enterprise appeared to be influenced by a desire to please the public and win popularity rather than promote the educational and progressive advance of musical art. His troops of friends and easily-won popularity were not calculated to lead to any continuous development of his natural gifts and fine musical talent. Altogether he gained an ascendancy in the Philharmonic Society which made him aggressive and difficult to manage ...“

An interesting lost musical work by Lee is a song called The ins and outs of responsible government (words by E. G. Fitzgibbon), newly published and briefly reviewed in The Argus in February 1880.

References: “DUBLIN”, The Musical Times 11 (1 March 1863), 8:; [News], The Argus (27 February 1865), 4:; [News], The Argus (8 March 1865), 4:; [News], The Argus (6 December 1865), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 September 1866), 8:; “INTERCOLONIAL EXHIBITION”, The Argus (4 December 1866), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (16 December 1868), 8:; “MR. DAVID LEE’S CONCERT”, The Argus (17 March 1874), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (27 December 1875), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 July 1876), 3:; “THE SCOT’S CHURCH”, The Argus (25 July 1876), 7:; “ALLAN AND CO.’S NEW MUSIC WAREHOUSE”, The Argus (5 October 1876), 10:; [News], The Argus (28 February 1880), 6:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (13 May 1897), 1:; “DEATH OF MR. DAVID LEE”, The Argus (13 May 1897), 6:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (10 May 1916), 1:

Bibliography: W. A. Carne, A century of harmony: the official centenary history of the Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society (Melbourne: Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society, 1954);; scanned reprint, Organ Historical Trust of Australia: ; Sally O’Neill, Lee, David (1837–1897), Australian Dictionary of Biography 5 (1974); see also Helen Jones, Lee, Mary (1821–1909), Australian Dictionary of Biography 10 (1986)




LEE, Harcourt

Professor of Music, pianist, orchestral conductor, composer
Active Melbourne, by September 1863 (brother of David LEE)
Died Melbourne, 18 May 1908

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (2 September 1863), 8:; “CORONER’S INQUEST”, The Argus (15 February 1864), 5:; [News], The Argus (12 October 1867), 4:; “Deaths”, The Argus (6 June 1908), 12:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (24 June 1908), 1:

Works: The Duke of Edinburgh Waltz ([Melbourne]: [W. H. Glen], [1867])
Melbourne Exhibition Quadrille; in Glen's Exhibition Album (Melbourne : W. H. Glen, [1880?])



LEE, J. C.
Vocalist, bones player (New York Serenaders)
Active, 1851

References: [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (1 March 1851), 133:; “DEPARTURES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (27 October 1851), 2:



LEE, John
Itinerant, composer
Active Hobart, 1862

1862: IDLE AND DISORDERLY. John Lee charged with being an idle and disorderly person, and begging from public-house to public-house under pretence of shewing his manuscript musical compositions, was sentenced to three months’ imprisonment, this being the second occasion on which he had left the Invalid Depot to pursue the same course.

References: “POLICE COURT”, The Mercury (14 October 1862), 2:



LEE, Joseph
Travelling musician
Active TAS, 1856

References: “KINGSTON. THE LATE APPALLING MURDER”, The Courier (13 November 1856), 2:



LEE, Philip
Violinist, orchestra leader, pianist
Active Sydney, 1839; Adelaide, from 1839
Died Glenelg, 8 January 1861, aged 51

Summary: An Adelaide merchant, Lee gave a “Select Ball” in December 1838 at which he played the violin and a Herr Draving sang and played guitar. He was perhaps related to the actor and singer John Lee active in Sydney theatre. Philip was anyway in Sydney during the first half of 1839, playing with Deane at a Cecilian Society meeting in March. In June, Lee directed a civilian band at a “St. Andrew’s Ball” (though obviously not St. Andrew’s Day) and was himself leader at a Cecilian Society concert which included the overtures of Don Giovanni, Barber of Seville, and Masaniello. Back in Adelaide, Lee was “Leader of the Orchestra” when Cameron announced theatrical entertainments in October. In February 1848, he was leader of the band at Lazar’s New Queen’s Theatre, and in 1849, he was an associate artist in Wallace and Ellard’s concerts. In 1851-52 he was still giving his services to the theatre gratuitously.

References: [Advertisement], South Australian Gazette (29 July 1837), 1:; [Advertisement], South Australian (15 September 1838), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian Gazette (15 December 1838), 4:; “The Cecilian Society”, The Australian (9 March 1839), 3:; [Letter], “To the Editor”, The Sydney Gazette (27 June 1839), 3:; “CECILIAN SOCIETY”, The Sydney Herald (28 June 1839), 2:; “THE CECILIAN CONCERT”, The Colonist (29 June 1839), 2:; “THE ST. ANDREW’S BALL” & “CECILIAN CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (29 June 1839), 1:; [Advertisement], South Australian Gazette (15 December 1838), 4:; [Advertisement], South Australian (30 October 1839), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian (9 February 1841), 1s:; [Advertisement], South Australian (13 August 1841), 1:; “RESIDENT MAGISTRATES COURT”, South Australian Register (10 June 1848), 4: [Advertisement], South Australian (29 February 1848), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian (6 October 1848), 3:; “WEDNESDAY’S CONCERT”, South Australian (13 March 1849), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian (1 May 1849), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (1 September 1851), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (8 May 1852), 2:; “DEATHS”, South Australian Register (10 January 1861), 2:



Chinese musicians
Active Ballarat, 1863

1863: At about nine o’clock Mr. Lang, the assiduous president of the institute, brought up to the orchestra a band of some tea or a dozen Chinese, whose services he had enlisted in the good cause. It had been announced that Mr. Ah Coon, the Government interpreter, would favor the company with songs in the Malay, Amoy, and Chin Choo dialects, but Mr. Ah Coon, it appears, did not feel himself in sufficiently robust health to trust his reputation as a vocalist to the hazard of an attempt that evening, confining himself to heralding to the audience the performances of his compatriots. With Chinese music and musical instruments our readers are somewhat familiar, but we dare say they will not be sorry to have the comments of an explanatory paper handed to us on Saturday evening by the president. From this we learn that Ge Sin played on the Kong-wai. The drums covered with buffalo skins were played by Ah Kow, and the gong by Le Tak. The Chinese guitar, or moot-kem, a flat circular instrument with four strings, played on by means of a small piece of bone, was manipulated by Lee-Sem. Wee-Pin played with bone the Sam-yen, a guitar like instrument of three strings, the sounding board being covered with snake-skin. The pan-ewoo, a flat disc of wood for the purpose of keeping time, was beaten by sticks. The shap-ar, a small oblong piece of hardwood six inches by three, was also used for marking time. Wee Pin played the cymbals or cha, well known to dwellers in Ballarat East. Lee Tak also played the gong or laur,  “very effective”, as Mr. Lang says, “in producing loud music”. Lee Yeng and Lee Chok played the tee-uh or tuk-tie, which produced sounds similar to the Scotch bagpipes, or Scotch organ, as Ah Coon calls the instrument. As we have before stated, Mr. Ah Coon did not sing, but Lee Tak and Kong Wai did. The first sang in his natural voice, and the second in falsetto; but, owing to the ponderousness of the accompaniment, neither could be heard. At the conclusion of the songs, the party retired amidst the applause which courtesy, if not appreciation demanded.

References: [Advertisement], The Star (3 October 1863), 3:; “NEWS AND NOTES”, The Star (5 October 1863), 2:; “CHINESE SINGING AND PLAYING”, Bendigo Advertiser (7 October 1863), 3:



LEES, Renee (Reene)
Pianist, composer
Born Sydney, 18 November 1882

1894: Miss Renee Less, a pupil of Herr Josef Kretschmann, gave a pianoforte recital in the Y.M.C.A. Hall last night in the presence of an audience that filled the entire building. The young debutante has not yet reached the age of 11, and the only rational way to account for her wonderful performance is to write her down at once a genius. Not only did she surprise and captivate her audience by her skill as a pianist, but she even appeared in the role of composer, and in a programme including the names of Bach, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt, and Mariani, an honored place was found for three little bracketed compositions of Renee Lees. […] Her rendering of “Preludio and Fuga No. 2” [Bach] was a revelation, and the almost perfect expression she gave to the language of the music of Beethoven’s Clavier Concerte” (Emperor), E flat, with string quartette accompaniment, filled the audience with delight. They were both masterly efforts. The technique was all that could be desired, and the style clear, crisp, showy, pleasantly suggesting Kowalski […] As for her settings of the songs “Lullaby,” “The Mill,” and “The Brook” (pleasingly rendered by Madame Marie St.Clair), if it cannot be said that they display any marked originality they at least give forth great promise of better work to come. The simple melodies of “Lullaby” and “The Brook” made those numbers popular. The theme of “The Mill” was rather more ambitious, and sounded hard and unsympathetic. The composer, it may be added, played the accompaniments in a very able manner […] 1900: The clever young pianist, Renee Lees, who recently left Sydney with her mother, has met with a very gratifying reception since her arrival in London on the part of various musical experts […]

References: “MISS RENEE LEES’S BENEFIT”, Evening News (29 August 1894), 3:; [News], Evening News (21 April 1900), 2s:

Resources: works:; biography (1894):



LEFFLER, Edmund Ironsides
Professor of Music, violinist, pianist
Baptised Lambeth, England, 5 March 1809
Arrived Hobart, 21 September 1834 (per Ellen, from London, 20 March)
Died Fitzroy, Melbourne, 13 March 1873, aged 67

LEFFLER, (Elizabeth) Madeline
Born 17 October 1847


Summary: At Hastings, England, on 6 September 1833 a bastardy order was issue citing Edmund Leffler of Hastings All Saints, musician, as father of Mary Ann Harman's son, born at the house of Benjamin Harman on 6 Aug 1833. This was followed on 14 October 1834 with a warrant for Leffler’s arrest for failing to obey a maintenance order [East Sussex Record Office; Parish of Hastings St Clements, PAR367/34/5/71; PAR367/34/4/51]. Perhaps having fled Hastings and England to avoid arrest, Leffler arrived in Hobart on 21 September 1834, and a few days later was leader of the orchestra for William Russell’s farewell benefit (prior to him visiting England). Leffler advertised as a music teacher (“late of the King’s Theatre, Opera House”) and piano tuner in Launceston in September 1835, and in Hobart, jointly with William Russell (evidently returned), in December, but by April 1836 had settled permanently in Launceston. On 28 December 1837 he announced in the Sydney press that he intended to take up residence in Maitland, NSW, at the end of that week. Nevertheless, it was not until the following September that he announced his intention to leave Launceston, and, recently married, he and his wife sailed for Sydney in October. In Sydney (not in Maitland; he appears never to have got there) he advertised as a teacher in November and was billed to play a violin solo in John Philip Deane’s concert late that month. However, the concert was postponed until 9 December, and on 14 December Leffler’s wife Emma died, aged 25. Having perhaps met the Gautrots in Sydney, Leffler failed to appear, as expected, as pianist at their Hobart concert May 1839, and was replaced by Maria Logan. However, he appeared regularly in concert notices thereafter. In April 1841 he was leader of the “small but select” theatre orchestra (including the Messrs. Duly, senior and junior, and Joseph Reichenberg). He announced his return to Launceston in December 1842. He appears to have visited Melbourne briefly in May-June 1843, and was thereafter back at the Hobart theatre. He married Elizabeth Coglin at St. Joseph’s, Hobart, on 22 June 1844, and the couple returned to settle again in Launceston the following May. Leffler sailed for London alone in April 1848, while his wife carried on a millinery business in Launceston during 1849. He was reported to have arrived back in Adelaide in July 1850, but not until September was he finally back in Launceston. There he remained for the rest of the decade, appearing with visiting artists such as Ali-Ben Sou-Alle, though also making occasional appearances elsewhere, as in January 1857 when he reportedly assisted at Anna Bishop’s first Hobart concert. From 1857, there were frequent references to the “Leffler Family”— his (? Eldest) son, a cellist, and daughter Madeline, a pianist, who, at the reported age of 8 (nearer 10) in October 1857 “played on the pianoforte several of the most difficult pieces with great brilliancy and effect”—until April 1862 when they gave their farewell concert at Longford. Advertisements place Leffler in Ballarat between November 1862 and March 1864.

Hobart, 1842: The orchestra has, of late, been effectively strengthened, and execute the favourite overtures which have been selected, with taste and precision. Would, however, that we could instil into the veins of Mr. Leffler, the leader, a little of that nerve without which no one is fit to conduct in a musical theme ! We do him justice in the accuracy of his fingering and the truth of his shifts; but what would the immortal Paganini say were he to hear a leading violin glancing over its passages with unchanged expression, and with as little energy as might be elicited near the bed of an expiring patient? Preferring (when such can with propriety be done) to preserve silence rather than bestow vituperation, we should have withheld the foregoing remarks as far as Mr. Leffler is concerned, but that we have felt ourselves bound, in justice to the public, to say still more on the subject of his piano accompaniments, which have of late been gone through in so careless a manner as to lead not a few to the belief that his blunders, causing, as they have evidently done, much inconvenience to the singers, and palpable injustice to the exertions of the dancers, have arisen rather through negligence than a want of ability to perform his task in a more creditable manner. If such be the case, we think that so glaring an insult to the audience ought not, on his part, to be allowed to recur; and we, ourselves, can hardly credit that an artist, whom we believe to have had a certain share of expe- rience, can be ignorant of the almost ridiculous effect of sitting on the piano stool and wading through an accompaniment without either emphasis or regard to the ad libitum passages to be gone through by the singer. More monotony could not be aimed at by a “young miss” just let loose from a boarding school.

References: [Advertisement], Colonial Times (23 September 1834), 3:; “Van Diemen’s Land News”, The Sydney Herald (20 October 1834), 1s:; [Advertisement], Launceston Advertiser (10 September 1835), 2:; [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (25 December 1835), 3:; [Advertisement], Launceston Advertiser (14 April 1836), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (28 December 1837), 3s:; [Advertisement], Launceston Advertiser (13 September 1838), 2:; “VAN DIEMEN’S LAND. MARRIAGE”, The Asiatic Journal and monthly miscellany 27 (September 1838), 40:; “LAUNCESTON SHIP NEWS”, Colonial Times (6 November 1838), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (9 November 1838), 1:; [Advertisement], The Australian (22 November 1838), 1:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Gazette (20 December 1838), 3:; “CONCERT”, The Hobart Town Courier (31 May 1839), 2:; “ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE”, The Courier (16 April 1841), 2:; “THEATRE”, Colonial Times (27 April 1841), 2:; “THE ALBERT THEATRE”, The Courier (18 March 1842), 2:; [Advertisement], Launceston Advertiser (15 December 1842), 2:; “MUSICAL PROFESSION”, Launceston Examiner (4 June 1845), 3:; “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, The Courier (9 June 1843), 2:; “MARRIED”, Launceston Examiner (26 June 1844), 4:; [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (24 May 1845), 3:; “ST. JOHN’S CHURCH ORGANIST”, The Cornwall Chronicle (12 July 1845), 2:; “SHIPPING NEWS”, The Courier (3 May 1848), 2:; “MUSICAL”, Launceston Examiner (21 August 1850), 5:; “ARRIVALS”, Launceston Examiner (7 September 1850), 6:; [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (7 September 1850), 589:; “MADAME ANNA BISHOP”, Colonial Times (31 January 1857), 3:; “MUSICAL ENTERTAINMENT”, The Courier (7 October 1857), 3:; “MECHANICS’ INSTITUTE BAZAAR”, Launceston Examiner (20 February 1858), 5:; “CONCERT”, The Courier (19 May 1858), 3:; “THE LONGFORD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, Launceston Examiner (5 January 1860), 2:; “CONCERT AT LONGFORD”, Launceston Examiner (15 July 1862), 5:; [Advertisement], The Star (1 November 1862), 3:; [Advertisement], The Star (21 March 1864), 1:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (15 March 1873), 4:; “PERSONAL”, The Advertiser (8 November 1915), 6:


Musician, former bandmaster, clarinettist, cornet player, conductor, musical arranger
Arrived Sydney, by August 1839
Died Sydney, 3 May 1846


Summary: According his obituary Leggatt had been for “28 years master of the 7th Hussars Band“ (“Leggatt, Professor of Music, 7th Hussars“ appears, on p. xvi, as a subscriber in Robert Cocks's 1841 English edition of J. A. Hamilton's translation of Cherubini's A course in counterpoint and fugue). A contemporary report says he was a brother-in-law of Francis Ellard (a much later report has him a cousin of the Wallaces). Leggatt and his wife Susan (and perhaps child Thomas junior below) arrived in Sydney by late August 1839, when Thomas was first billed to appear in a concert with the Gautrots, Wallaces, Bushelles, and Deanes. he bought the license of the Hope and Anchor inn on the corner of Susssex and Druitt Streets in September 1839, which was to remain in his wife's hands long after his death. In George Peck's concert in October he accompanied the Bushelles on the cornet in Bellini's Let the trumpet sound (“Suoni la Tromba“, from I Puritani), one of the earliest of documented concert performances of any Bellini work in Australia (preceded only by Miss Rosalie Deane singing Gentle Goddess a month earlier on 3 September). Early in he seems to have gained a critic in W. A. Duncan, who, noting his clarinet solo at the Gautrots' concert in November, “should have had something to say in favour of Mr. Leggatt's Exile of Erin, if he had not put us out of all patience previously to his performing it, by his conceited capers on the platform playing voluntaries, interludes and symphonies, and God knows what.“ 

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (24 August 1839), 3:; “PETTY SESSIONS“, The Sydney Gazette (12 September 1839), 3: h; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (30 September 1839), 2:; “M. GAUTROT'S CONCERT“, Australasian Chronicle (15 November 1839), 1:; “DIED“, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 May 1846), 3:



LEGGATT, Thomas (? junior)
Active Sydney, 1841-60

Summary: A Master Leggatt, presumably son of the band leader Thomas Leggatt, was listed among the treble vocalists at Isaac Nathan's Sydney Oratorio in June 1841. He is perhaps the T. Leggatt who was Librarian of Sydney Philharmonic Society in 1860.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (2 July 1841),  2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 July 1860), 1:



LEGGE, William
Professor of music, piano tuner, composer
Active Gippsland, VIC, by 1866 (formerly of Bury St. Edmunds, England)
Died Sale, VIC, 2 June 1876, aged 47

1867: Our readers will recollect that Mr W. Legge, so well known in musical circles, whilst out shooting some time ago on the Avon River met with an accident which necessitated the amputation of his left arm. To a professor of music, this was an irreparable loss, and Mr. Legge has had many friends to sympathise him in his misfortune.

1868: A quadrille “Le jour de naissance”, composed by Mr. W. Legge was rendered by the band in an inspiriting manner.

References: [Advertisement], Gippsland Times (18 April 1862), 1: ; “THE INQUEST“, Gippsland Times (27 February 1863) 4:; [News], The Argus (30 July 1867), 5:; [Advertisement], Gippsland Times (24 September 1867), 2:; [News], Gippsland Times (28 September 1867), 2:; “AMATEUR DRAMATIC PERFORMANCE”, Gippsland Times (3 October 1867), 3:; “AMATEUR COMPLIMENTARY CONCERT”, Gippsland Times (14 March 1868), 3:; “AMATEUR CONCERT”, Gippsland Times (5 December 1868), 3:; “DEATHS“, Gippsland Times (3 June 1876), 2: 

Work: Thou art lovelier (song; poetry written by Richard Howitt; music composed ... by William Legge)  



LE GRAND, Louise
Pianist, vocalist
Active Melbourne, by 1873; until 1875 (? 1897)

1873: LESSONS in SINGING. Mdlle. LOUISE LEGRAND (for four years pupil of the great maestro Mons. Wartel, of Paris, the professor of the celebrated prima donnas Mesdames Trebelli and Nilsson). Will receive private PUPILS in SINGING. Testimonials from Mons. Wartel. Address Mademoiselle Louise Logrand, 33 Princes-street, Fitzroy, Melbourne.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (21 April 1873), 1:; “LAUNCESTON”, The Mercury (17 May 1875), 2:; [News], The Argus (12 July 1875), 5:; “Music and the Drama”, Australian Town and Country Journal (17 January 1885), 25:; ? [Advertisement], Evening News (5 August 1897), 8:



LEGREW, Mr. (? typo)
? Violinist, leader of the orchestra, actor, entertainer
Active Beechworth, VIC, 1858

Beechworth, 1858: […] Nor must we forget Mr. Legrew, who may be compared to an anphibious animal, being equally capable of delighting us with the Sweet strains of music, as he is in treating us to the pleasures of the sack and buskin. […]

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (20 June 1857), 8:; [Advertisement], Ovens and Murray Advertiser (14 October 1858), 1:; “STAR THEATRE”, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (12 November 1858), 2:; [Advertisement], Ovens and Murray Advertiser (20 November 1858), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (18 October 1860), 8: 

Associations: W. Howson



Active Beechworth, VIC, 1857

References: “POLICE COURT”, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (24 June 1857), 2:



Priest, musician, vocalist, choirmaster
Arrived Sydney, 1843
Active Adelaide, by 1847
Died Morphett Vale, South Australia, 6 April 1864, in his 50 year

Summary: An Italian Passionist priest, Lencioni taught music and singing, and it is recorded that on August 8th, 1847 he conducted the choir at a Pontifical High Mass at St. Patrick’s Church, ? Adelaide. One of his singing pupils, Thomas Bastard, recorded: “After a time I was summoned by the Bishop, and told it was my duty to join the choir. I explained that I was but a poor scholar, and did not understand English, much less Latin; but he introduced me to Father Maurice Lencioni, a good man, who held the office of choir singing-master and confessor, and whose duty it was to visit the sick, bury the dead, and bring young people together for marriage. Everybody liked this priest, myself particularly. He was an Italian, a splendid musician, and gifted with a good voice; he undertook to teach me the Latin service, and he had his work to do. It was a long time before I could manage it; but at length I succeeded fairly well, but never became A1.”

References: “SOUTH AUSTRALIA”, Empire (27 March 1856), 2:; “MUSIC FESTIVAL AT MINTARO”, South Australian Register (9 October 1860), 3:; “THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL”, South Australian Register (2 April 1861), 3:; “DEATHS”, South Australian Register (7 April 1864), 2:; “THE LATE REV. MAURICE LENCIONI”, South Australian Register (8 April 1864), 2:

Bibliography: Thomas Bastard, The Autobiography of Cockney Tom (Adelaide: McClory and Masterman, 1881):




LENCIONI, (Signor P.) Luigi
Basso buffo vocalist
Arrived Sydney, by 1886
Died Sydney, 4 February 1891

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (27 July 1886), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 December 1889), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (9 February 1891), 8:



? Composer
Active Ballarat, 1867

1867: The Duke was also presented with a copy of a local musical production by Mr. Lennox, entitled “The Duke's Welcome to Australia”.

References: “THE LEVEE”, Portland Guardian (16 December 1867), 3:; J. G. Knight, Narrative of the visit of his royal highness the duke of Edinburgh to the colony of Victoria, Australia (Melbourne: Mason, Firth, 1868): 



LEO, Thomas
Trombone player, bandsman (99th Regiment)
Regiment active Australia, 1843-56

References: “THE BAND OF THE 99TH”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 September 1844), 3:; [Advertisement], The Australian (29 November 1845), 1:




Bandsman (Burton’s Band)
Active, 1856

1856: Jacob Young, Jacob Düne, Conrad Sander, Heinrich Rodenbout, Carl Leonhardt, Daniel Müller, and Christian Prothenbuck, known as “Burton’s Band”, appeared to answer the complaint of Mr. Henry Burton, for that they having contracted to serve the said Henry Burton as musicians, and having entered into bis service, did neglect and refuse to fulfil the same.

References: “MOUNT BARKER”, South Australian Register (7 November 1856), 3: 



Ballet troupe, theatrical dancers, musicians

3 brothers George, Tom, Henry

Ballet master
Arrived Melbourne, by December 1857
Died ? August 1904

LEOPOLD, Fanny (“Fraulein Fannie”) (Mrs. Henry LEOPOLD)
Died Fitzroy, VIC, 12 July 1885, aged 46

Theatre-orchestra conductor
Died Sydney, 28 April 1895

Died Carlton, VIC, 18 June 1871


January 1858: The celebrated Leopold family, consisting of Joseph Leopold, George Leopold, Jane Leopold, Fanny Leopold, and a corps de ballet, sailed middle of September for the Christmas Harlequinade, all first-class artistes in their departments. 1859: At the Melbourne District Court, recently, Mr. George Leopold, on behalf of the Leopold family, sued Mr. George Coppin, the proprietor of the Theatre Royal, for £3 10s., being wages for the part they performed in the morning pantomime of the 8th January. The family had entered into an agreement in London before coming to Melbourne, and were there given to understand that all morning performances were to be paid for extra. […]

Obituary (1871): DEATH OF MR. TOM LEOPOLD. The Herald chronicles with regret the decease of this gentleman on Sunday last, June 18, at his residence, Lygon street, Carlton. The late Mr. Leopold was a dancer and pantomimist of the highest class, and gained his early experience from Tom Matthews, Barnes, Jefferini, and other English pantomime artists. In company with his brothers George and Henry, and Fraulein Fanny (Mrs. Henry Leopold), he left England under engagement to Mr. George Coppin, and with them appeared for the first time in Australia in Akhurst’s pantomime, Whittington and his Cat, in December, 1857. Some two years back Mr. Leopold caught a very violent cold, which ultimately took the form of chronic pleurisy, to which he ultimately succumbed after severe suffering. He was privately buried in the Melbourne Cemetery. 

1904: The late Mr. George Leopold (says Melbourne “Sporting and Dramatic News”) left £2,814 to various members of his family. The real estate was valued at £2,265 and personal £549. The will was proved under his proper name - Geo. Wooldridge.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (16 December 1857), 8:; “MR. GEORGE COPPIN, THE AUSTRALIAN MANAGER”, The Courier (25 January 1858), 2:; “CHARLIE NAPIER”, The Star (8 November 1858), 2:; “ODDS AND ENDS”, The Courier (4 February 1859), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 December 1863), 8:; “HAYMARKET THEATRE”, Bendigo Advertiser (5 August 1859), 3:; “PRODUCTION OF SHAKESPEARE’S TEMPTEST AT THE PRINCE OF WALES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (27 September 1869), 5:; “DEATH OF MR. TOM LEOPOLD”, South Australian Register (26 June 1871), 4:; “Deaths”, The Argus (15 July 1885), 1:; “OLD LAUNCESTON PLAYBILLS”, Launceston Examiner (28 November 1891), 1s:; “DEATHS”, Evening News (29 April 1895), 4:; “Funerals”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 April 1895), 8:; [News], Barrier Miner (15 August 1904), 2:; “DRAMATIC NOTES”, The Mercury (17 August 1904), 7:; “DRAMATIC NOTES”, The Mercury (5 October 1904), 7:

Resources: Irvin, Dictionary, 160 



Violinist, orchestra leader
Active Melbourne, 1859-63

References: “MR. LISSIGNOL’S CONCERT”, The Argus (24 January 1859), 5:; “MR. LISSIGNOL’S CONCERT AT THE EXHIBITION BUILDING”, The Argus (11 March 1859), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 May 1861), 8: ; “LAW REPORT […] ASPINWALL v. MERIC”, The Argus (7 November 1863), 6:

Associations: Eugene Lissingnol, George Pringle, Musical Union (Melbourne)



LEVEY, Barnett (LEVY)
Vocalist, theatre proprietor
Born London, 1798
Arrived Sydney, December 1821
Died Sydney, 2 October 1837, aged 39


Obituary: Mr Barnett Levy, who emigrated t0 this colony a number of years back, and who first introduced theatricals, died early yesterday morning, only forty years of age. He has left a widow and four children to mourn his loss. His remains will be interred in the Jewish Burial Ground this morning, and we believe they will be followed to their last home by many of his friends.

Summary: Having come to Australia to join his emancipist brother Solomon Levey, Barnett Levey established himself as a merchant, in June 1825 Levey married Sarah Wilson, stepsister of the musician (later judge) Joseph Frey Josephson. Levey regularly sang at convivial dinners, and also participated in the Sydney Amateur Concerts in 1826, specialising in comic songs, such as, in June, the Beautiful Boy, according to the Gazette, “given with the most irresistable drollery”. In September he reportedly sang “a comic song, a medley, with his usual humour, but without an accompaniment; the want of which, Mr. L.’s voice, though it is not without strength and compass, could but ill spare.” However, he also extended his repertoire at the October concert to sing Braham’s The Death of Nelson. During the latter part of 1827 and 1828, no more public concerts were advertised. Meanwhile, Levey hatched plans to establish a new theatre in Sydney, and in 1828 began building suitable premises, eventually attaching a hotel, the Royal, at the front to help pay for the venture. Public entertainment generally was struck a blow when, on 1 September 1828, the naturally austere and censorious governor, Ralph Darling, promulgated An Act for Regulating Places of Public Exhibition and Entertainment, which henceforth required a government license to present: “[…] any Interlude, Tragedy, Comedy, Opera, Concert, Play, Farce, or other, Entertainment, of the Stage, or any Part or Parts thereof, or any Stage-dancing, Tumbling, or Horsemanship, or any other public Entertainment whatever, to which Admission shall or may be procured by Payment of Money, or by Tickets […]” In June 1829, Darling did issue a license to allow Levey to hold balls and concerts, and a few such events were held, with music organised by Josephson. However, Darling then withdrew the license in January 1830. The former bandmaster George Sippe took over as licensee of the hotel temporarily in June 1831, and remained as one of the theatre’s leading musicians. In 1833, Levey built new premises, the Theatre Royal, which, duly licensed by Darling’s more liberal successor Bourke, opened with Levey’s first musical “at home” in August 1832, and its theatrical opening in December. In 1833 the Monitor described it: “The new Theatre is larger than the Adelphi Theatre in London, superior in size and appearance to most of the country Theatres in the United Kingdom, and altogether, we entertain this pleasing hope, that henceforth, the Sydney Theatre will become truly respectable, as regards the pubic and profitable as regards the zealous, laborious, and persevering Lessee.” Levey advertised for partners in January 1834, and in February Joseph Simmons joined in the management. Thereafter, Levey mostly ceded control of the theatre to lessees, and faced the prospect of further competition when, in mid 1836, Joseph Wyatt announced plans to open a second theatre (ultimately the Royal Victoria). In January 1837, after the play, he made “his first appearance this Season” singing one of his favourite songs, The Old Commodore “in character”, and the last performance under his management was of the “grand national and patriotic pageant and Spectacle of Napoleon Bonaparte” in April 1837. In September the Gazette reported that: “The stage manager of the Sydney Theatre, we understand, has found it absolutely necessary, in order to enable him to conduct the business of the house with anything like propriety, to stipulate for the entire exclusion of Mr. Barnett Levy, the proprietor, from behind the scenes, it being found that his presence and interference is anything but conducive to the prosperity of the drama.” He died a few days later, and thereafter his widow Sarah, with the assistance of her step-father Jacob Josephson, briefly and unsuccessfully tried to keep the theatre running, leading to a public rift with several former employees, notably, as reported in July 1838, the band cellist George Sippe.

References: “PUBLIC DINNER TO HIS EXCELLENCY SIR T. BRISBANE”, The Sydney Gazette (10 November 1825), 3:; “SYDNEY AMATEUR CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (24 June 1826), 3:; “THE CONCERT”, The Australian (30 September 1826), 3:; “MR. SIPPE’S BENEFIT CONCERT”, The Monitor (13 October 1826), 5:; [Government order], The Sydney Gazette (3 September 1828), 1:; “Musical Concert”, The Sydney Gazette (20 June 1829), 2:; “Rejected Addresses [No 1]: To have been spoken at the Opening of the Opera House, Sydney, August 1829”, The Sydney Gazette (12 September 1829), 3:; “THE CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (19 September 1829), 2:; “MR. LEVEY‘S CONCERT”, The Sydney Monitor (22 August 1829), 3:; [News], The Sydney Gazette (26 September 1829), 2:; “The Diary of a Dilettante”, The Harmonicon 8 (1830), 171:; “Domestic Intelligence”, The Sydney Gazette (27 June 1831), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (27 August 1832), 1:; “LEVY AT HOME”, The Sydney Herald (13 September 1832), 3:; “THEATRE-ROYAL, SYDNEY”, The Sydney Herald (31 December 1832), 3:; [News], The Sydney Monitor (25 September 1833), 3:; “To the Editor”, The Sydney Monitor (31 March 1837), 3:; “THE DRAMA”, The Sydney Gazette (23 September 1837), 2:; “DEATHS”, The Australian (3 October 1837), 3:; [News], The Australian (3 October 1837), 4:; “THINGS THEATRICAL”, The Sydney Gazette (3 April 1838), 2:; “Law Intelligence”, The Sydney Gazette (13 July 1838), 3:; “HOW THE DRAMA STRUCK ROOT IN SYDNEY”, The Sydney Morning Herald (26 September 1891), 5:

Resources: G. F. J. Bergman, Levey, Barnett (1798-1837), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967); Obituaries Australia:



LEVEY, Montague
Amateur composer, property developer, patron
Born 1834
Arrived Sydney, 27 July 1835 (per Hercules, with parents Isaac and Dinah Levey)
Died Sydney, 1884

1864: The publication of works emanating from the pen of professional composers is, like every other transaction in business, made, in some measure, a mere speculation, pieces, like books, being often written that will attract attention rather by some particular local circumstance—of dedication, popularity—or other point on which to hinge a title that will command a sale. How far more gratifying for the sake of art is it, when we find those who are not desirous of acquiring profit by the efforts of their talents, but rather of making them contribute to the cultivation and advancement of the art they practice. Mr. Montague Levey,  Wynyard-square, a well-known citizen of this city, had forwarded to us a series of seven polkas, the results of his facile conception in the realms of composition. The author ia well known in Sydney as one of our very best musical amateurs, with a decided penchant and taste for pianoforte music. It is most gratifying to see gentlemen possessed of wealth make use of it to so excellent a purpose as the advancement of the fine arts. These polkas are not published for sale, but for circulation amongst friends; and engraved (by Turner) and printed as they are in the most elegant style must have cost a very large sum, in these dull times—a benefit, also, to the artisan; their publications would meet with a ready demand. They are all dedicated to the ladies of Sydney, by whom they cannot fail to be thorougbly appreciated; the ladies, indeed, will be thankful to have a cavalier who thus devotes his time, talents, and fortune for their amusement. Without entering into any analysis of the particular merits of these polkas, we may easily weave the thread of a very interesting tale from their several titles; the “I don’t know” represents the state of dount into which the mind of the composer is thrown as in which of the fair sex to which it is dedicated should be chosen; the “Selina” names the most charming, as the heroine; the “Montague” represents thee “free selector”or hero, both being united in “The Bride and Bridegroom”; the “Venus” suggests the goddess who watches over the happy union; the “Turon” is the happy retreat for the honeymoon; while the “Aboriginal”, of course, alludes to the natives met there whilst passing the time most happily; and this last one is certainly a very unique and original composition.

1875: Mr. Montague Levey has sent to this office seven polkas, which he composed some twenty years ago,and which he has republished in Sydney. At the time they were originally published they were very highly spoken of by the Press. They are dedicated to the ladies of Sydney. The composor has not re-published them with any view to profit, and as presentation copies to his friends they will no doubt be acceptable.

1881: In recognition of the kindly aid recently given by Mr. Levey, and with a view of showing his interest in the race to which by birth he belongs, Mr. Henry Ketten had again borrowed his Pleyel grand and sent it to Mr. Levey's, and as the bride entered the band suddeuly stopped and Mrs. Louis Hart was welcomed by the “Wedding March”, played on the piano as only Mr. Ketten has played it […] When the delighted plaudits had subsided, the bride and groom, with three of the bridesmaids and grooms-men, according to an old Hebrew custom, danced a quadrille.

References: “ARRIVAL OF THE NEW GOVERNOR”, The Australian (3 August 1846), 3:; “HER MAJESTY’S BIRTHDAY”, The Sydney Morning Herald (25 May 1849), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (1 July 1851), 1:; “AMATEUR COMPOSITION”, Empire (23 May 1864), 4:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (24 August 1861), 8:; [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (29 September 1875), 5:; “A JEWISH WEDDING”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 March 1881), 6:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (12 May 1884), 1:


His 7 polkas:
The Montague Polka (“Dedicated to the Ladies of Sydney”) ([Sydney]: [?], [1851]; Sydney: G. Hudson, [?])
The Turon Polka (composed by Montague Levey; Dedicated to the ladies of Australia) (Sydney: W. Hudson, [?])
The Selina Polka (composed by Montague Levey; and dedicated to Miss Selina Marks) (London: C. Davis, [?])
The I Don’t Know Polka (by Montague Levey; Dedicated to the ladies of Sydney) (Sydney : J. H. Anderson, [1861])
The Bride &​ Bridegroom Polka (for the piano forte, composed by Montague Levey) ([Sydney: M. Levey, 1875])
Venus Polka [lost]
Aboriginal Polka [lost]



Master of the band (NSW Corps; 102nd Regiment; 100th Regiment), conductor of church music
Born Dublin, 25 March 1781
Arrived Sydney, 1798 (per Barwell, free)
Enlisted (NSW Corps), Sydney, 13 December 1798 (WO 25/1302)
Died Geelong, VIC, 25 September 1857

LEVINGSTONE, John (? James)
Conductor of Church Music
Active Tasmania, 1819-21

Summary (partly after Champion): William Levingstone, described on his return to Sydney in September 1818, as “formerly Master of the Band in the 102d, since the 100th Regiment” had previously served in the colony in the NSW Corps (became 102nd in 1808 and 100th in 1816). If he was indeed in the band, or even bandmaster in Australia, he was probably playing with the NSW Corps band on the fateful day that Bligh was deposed. By 1811, at the time of his second marriage, however, he was in Horsham, England. He was discharged in England on 7 March 1818 (WO 97/1069; gives date and place of birth), and must have embarked to return to Sydney immediately thereafter. John Levingston was appointed District Constable in the District of Black Snake, Tasmania, in July 1819, and in Hobart in May 1821 a “J. Levingstone” was paid 5 pounds 18 shilling for “Services as Conductor of Church Music from 15th Sep. to 31st Dec. at 20 [pounds] per Annum” (interestingly, in the same accounts, the Rev. Robert Knopwood is reimbursed 5 pounds “that sum paid by him for a violin-cello, for the use of the church”), and again in October. In Hobart in February 1826, “W. Livistone” was granted from Government revenue “an Allowance in lieu of Shoes, when conductor of Church Music”. In 1847, a Henry Livingstone was reportedly a servant on the farm of a Mr. Mann murdered near Gleonorchy: “a free man … he was reared on the farm, which formerly belonged to his father, who had been bandmaster of the 102nd regiment, and of whom it was purchased by Mr. Mann.”

References: “Ship News”, The Sydney Gazette (19 September 1818), 3:; “GOVERNMENT PUBLIC NOTICES”, The Hobart Town Gazette (3 July 1819), 1:; “GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS”, Hobart Town Gazette (9 May 1821), 3s:; GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS”, Hobart Town Gazette (6 October 1821), 1s:; “GOVERNMENT ORDER”, Hobart Town Gazette (25 February 1826), 2s:; “MURDER OF MR. MANN”, The Courier (13 October 1847), 2:




Musician, Leader of the band (Theatre Royal, Launceston)
Active Launceston, 1859

Summary: Perhaps the same person as Barnett Levy below.

References: “TOWN TALK AND TABLE CHAT”, The Cornwall Chronicle (25 May 1859), 5:



LEVY, Barnett
Professor of music, violinist, leader (Theatre Royal orchestra; Royal Italian Opera Company), composer, arranger
Active Melbourne, by 1866
Died Emerald Hill, VIC, 22 October 1880, aged 54

Inquest: An inquest was held by Dr. Youl, the City Coroner, on Saturday, on the body of Barnett Levy, late a theatrical musician, who died suddenly at his residence at Emerald Hill on the 22nd inst. The wife of the deceased stated that the latter, who was fifty-four years of age, had complained of a pain in his chest, but was up and at a rehearsal the day of his death. In the evening he returned home, and after sitting down suddenly expired […] Mr. Lucas, surgeon, who was called in to see the deceased, and who after wards made a post-mortem examination, stated that death resulted from acute inflammation of the spleen with disease of the liver and stomach. Be added that deceased drank a good deal. The deceased was a brother of the [sic] Levy, the celebrated cornet player.

References: The Victoria Post Office Directory (1866), 98:; “Funeral Notices”, The Argus (11 November 1867), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 December 1869), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (29 January 1870), 8:; “NEW INSOLVENTS”, The Argus (14 October 1872),5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (8 February 1873), 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (24 November 1877), 2:; “VICTORIA”, Launceston Examiner (29 October 1880), 3:



LEVY, Isaac (Jules)
Cornet player
Born London, 24 April 1838
Toured Australia, 1877 (brother of violinist Barnett Levy)
Died Chicago, 28 November 1903

(November 1877): “Isaac Levy, of the Esplanade, St Kilda, musician. Causes of insolvency: Losses in connexion with a professional tour through South Australia and at Melbourne.”

References: [Alfred Mellon's summer concerts], The Musical World (15 August 1863), 517: The other solos were, one on the flageolet [...] and one on the cornet a pistons (“Carnival of Venice“), by Mr. Levy, who, as the programme informs us, is “about to depart for Australia''; “LEVY, THE GREAT CORNOPEAN PLAYER”, The Argus (23 March 1877), 6:; “FIRST APPEARANCE OF MR. LEVY”, The Mercury (9 August 1877), 2:; “LEVY, THE  CORNET SOLOIST”, Camperdown Chronicle (17 August 1877), 3:; “NEW INSOLVENTS”, The Argus (13 November 1877), 5:; “VICTORIAN ITEMS”, The Mercury (19 November 1877), 3:; “MUSIC”, The Australian Sketcher (24 November 1877), 138:; “LEVY, THE CORNET PLAYER”, Launceston Examiner (15 December 1879), 3:



Active Melbourne, 1852-53

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (6 December 1852), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (10 December 1852), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (19 March 1853), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (13 May 1853), 12:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 July 1853), 8:



Teacher of Dancing and Pianoforte, composer
Active Melbourne, 1854-55

Sunmary: A teacher of dancing and piano, she also composed The Mayor’s Polka and The Corporation Polka, both lost.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (6 November 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (10 January 1855), 1:; [Advertisement], The Argus (12 October 1855), 8:; “MUSIC”, The Argus (31 October 1855), 5:



LEWIS, The Misses
Teacher of the Pianoforte
Active Sydney, 1856

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (28 February 1856), 6:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (9 April 1856), 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (4 October 1856), 1:



LEWIS, Henry

Dancing master
Active Hobart, 1834

Summary: Lewis, “late of the Theatres Royal, London and for many years assistant to Mr. Hunt” advertised as a dancing master from Deane’s Rooms in Hobart in January 1834. In April, Deane advertised to Lewis’s creditors to present their bills, and in May his Hobart landlord threatened to put Lewis’s “wearing apparel” up for action. Nevertheless, Lewis weathered his financial difficulties and was appointed a petty constable in September, much to amusement of the Colonial Times in October, which made much of the former dancing-master’s transformation into a policeman.

References: [Advertisement], Colonial Times (14 January 1834), 3:; [Advertisement], Colonial Times (22 April 1834), 1:; [Advertisement], Colonial Times (6 May 1834), 1:; “GOVERNMENT NOTICE No. 193”, The Hobart Town Courier (19 September 1834), 2:; [Court reports], Colonial Times (14 October 1834), 7:



LEWIS, Louis L.
Organist, pianist, composer
Active Melbourne, 1860s

Summary: Lewis, a broker by profession, was an elector in Melbourne in September 1859. He was organist for the Melbourne Philharmonic Society concert in March 1860, with the Bianchis and Octavia Hamilton, and at which Beethoven’s Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage was given its first colonial performance. In a letter to the Argus in July, Lewis weighed in, on the society’s side, to a dispute with the composer Charles Elsasser on its alleged stinting of the band for their recent performance of his cantata. In January 1861, Lewis’s “beautiful new ballad” What sounds are those? was advertised for sale by Joseph Wilkie. He continued as honorary organist for the Philharmonic during 1861, and at a concert in October 1862 performed Weber’s Concertstück on the piano. He was secretary of the amateur St. Kilda Popular Entertainments in 1869.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (26 September 1859), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (6 March 1860), 8:; “THE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. TO THE EDITOR”, The Argus (6 July 1860), 7:; [Advertisement], The Argus (10 January 1861), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 October 1862), 8:; “THE ST. KILDA POPULAR ENTERTAINMENTS. TO THE EDITOR”, The Argus (4 January 1869), 5:



LEWIS, Mr. T. (? Sergeant Thomas)
Master of the band of the 17th Regiment, clarinettist, composer
Arrived Sydney, 9 February 1831 (per York)
Departed Sydney, March 1836 (for India)

Summary: Lewis and his band disembarked at Sydney on 9 February and within a week the people of Parramatta were reportedly “highly delighted at having the band of the 17th regiment stationed among them”. In October 1831, the band played for the departure of Governor Darling. Notably, for Barnett Levey’s “at home” in September 1832, the “Musical Department [was] conducted by Mr. T. LEWIS, Master of the 17th Regiment's Band, assisted with the string Band of that Regiment.” Lewis was also active as a player independently of his band, as for instance in August 1834, when “A Quintette for two violins, tenor, flute, and violincello, by Messrs. Wilson, Sippe, Josephson, Lewis, and another performer whose name we have not heard, was received with much applause”. At Thomas Stubbs's concert in April 1835, “Mr. Lewis's solo on the clarionette was a high treat“. Appearing with his band regularly in Sydney theatre, Lewis composed at least one theatre song, Why don’t the Girls propose, for Maria Taylor in September 1835 (the lyrics an original poem that had appeared recently in the press). Lewis and his band appeared in Vincent Wallace’s first Sydney concert in February 1836, and Lewis was rumoured to be planning a farewell concert of his own previous to he and his band departing with their regiment for India in early March. In farewell, the Gazette noted, not entirely approvingly, that Lewis had taken “great pains to prepare a large stock of all new interesting and scientific music he could get hold of, and the choice of marches, overtures, and other tunes, reflects great credit on the 17th.”

References: [News], The Sydney Gazette (12 February 1831), 2:; [News] & “PARRAMATTA”, The Sydney Gazette (15 February 1831), 3:; “CHANGE OF GOVERNORS”, The Asiatic journal and monthly miscellany (April 1832), 196:; “THE CONCERT“, The Sydney Gazette (1 September 1832), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (10 September 1832), 3:; “DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE”, The Sydney Monitor (2 October 1833), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (2 October 1833), 3:; [Letter] “To the Editor”, The Sydney Gazette (2 August 1834), 2:; “CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (21 August 1834), 2:; “THE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY”, The Sydney Monitor (3 September 1834), 3:; “CONCERT”, The Sydney Herald (27 November 1834), 2:; “CONCERT”, The Sydney Monitor (17  December 1834), 3:; “Mr. Lewis’s Concert”, The Sydney Monitor (20 December 1834), 2:; “CONCERT”, The Sydney Herald (26 March 1835), 3:; “MR STUBBS’S CONCERT”, The Australian (24 April 1835), 2: ttp://; “Original Poetry”, The Australian (15 September 1835), 4:; [Advertisement]: “Theatre Royal, Sydney”, The Australian (18 September 1835), 3:; [News]: “Mrs. Taylor‘s benefit”, The Australian (25 September 1835), 2:; “THE BAND OF THE 28TH”, The Sydney Gazette (2 February 1836), 2:; “MR. WALLACE’S CONCERT”, The Sydney Gazette (16 February 1836), 3:; “DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE”, The Sydney Herald (18 February 1836), 2:; “Domestic and Miscellaneous Intelligence”, The Australian (4 March 1836), 2:



Musical enthusiast, recorder and transcriber of Indigenous songs
Born Lvov, Ukraine, 1795
Arrived Sydney, 1832 (from Europe via Brazil)
Departed Hobart, April 1838 (per Emeu, for London)
Died (probably) London, 23 November 1866


Musical work: A Song of the Women of the Menero Tribe (“Arranged with the assistance of several Musical Gentlemen”) (Sydney: John Innes, [1834])

Resources: G. P. Whitley, Lhotsky, John (1795-1866), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967)



Professor of Music, composer
Active Melbourne, by 1865
Died Hawthorn, VIC, 8 February 1907, in his 60th year

References: “MARRIAGES”, The Argus (26 September 1865), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 May 1866), 8:; “BIRTHS”, The Argus (20 July 1866), 4:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (9 February 1907), 13:; “IN MEMORIAM”, The Argus (8 February 1908), 13:

Au Revoir Valse (Third Edition, Dedicated by special permission to Her Ladyship the Countess of Hopetoun) (Melbourne: Troedel &​ Co., [188-])
The Cycle Waltz (Dedicated ... to Lord &​ Lady Brassey) (Melbourne: Allan &​ Co., [189-?])



Vocalist, bones player
Active Sydney, 1857

(1857): Mr. HENRY LIESLY, the great American bone player, and delineator of Ethiopian Character is continuing his engagement at the Rainbow Tavern Concert Hall.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (27 February 1857), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (6 March 1857), 1:



LIGHT, George Thomas
Organist, piano and harmonium tuner, repairer, musical instrument maker, architect
Arrived Adelaide, by February 1849

Summary: Collins reports that according to C. E. Owen Smyth, “G. T. Light, ... was by trade a musical instrument maker – in Bristol … and afterwards was a draftsman in a foundry” (Page 1986: 38) before his arrival in the colony. At the end of lecture on fine arts and music by Mr. Gilfillan in February 1849, “Mr. Pitman introduced Mr. G. T. Light, an ingenious colonial mechanist, who performed a piece of music on a seraphine, built by himself”. As a result of this the birth-year of 1838 given by Collins must be incorrect. At the opening of the New Church (Swedenborgian) in July 1852: “The musical part of the service was performed by a choir, accompanied by Mr. G. T. Light, late organist of St. John’s, on the euphonicon”. He played the harmonium for a concert by the North Adelaide Choral Society in May 1855. Collins quotes: ‘He was a man ‘of small stature, one of the quietest men I’ve ever known, very methodical, fond of music’ wrote W. G. Randall of him in 1924 (Parker n.d.: 2). I cannot confirm any death date given for him in other sources.

References: [News], South Australian Register (24 February 1849), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (6 July 1852), 2:; “NEW CHURCH IN CARRINGTON STREET”, South Australian Register (12 July 1852), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (31 July 1854), 1:; “CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC”, South Australian Register (3 May 1855), 3:

Web: Julie Collins, George Thomas Light, Architects of South Australia:;; see also Light, Walter G., DAAO



LIGHT, Colonel (William)
Amateur musician, surveyor

References: “COLONEL LIGHT”, South Australian Register (3 February 1859), 2: “[…] Captain William Light, distinguished by the variety of his attainments, an artist, musician, mechanist, seaman, and soldier […].”

Web: David F. Elder, Light, William (1786–1839), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967)



LILLINGSTON, William Daniel
Clarinettist (99th Regiment)
Arrived 4 April 1843 (with regiment per North Britain)
Regiment active Australia, 1843-56
Died Ballarat, VIC, 22 August 1916

Summary: A family history places him at the gates of Buckingham Palace when the birth of Edward the Seventh was announced (9.11.1841). When he enlisted in the 99th Regiment of Foot on 16 June 1842 he was under-age to be a soldier so was put into the regimental band. He was discharged in March 1850 in Hobart Town. Pay records show his regiment number as 1791. After discharge, he worked in Tasmania for a while with the Tasmanian Postal service and then went to Victoria. Daniel was the first letter carrier for Ballarat.  With wife Jane Watson he produced 14 children. He died 22 August 1916 & is buried in the old Ballarat Cemetery.

References: “THE BAND OF THE 99TH”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 September 1844), 3:; [Advertisement], The Australian (29 November 1845), 1:




Organist, choral conductor (Hullah system), composer, piano tuner, bandmaster
Active Adelaide, by 1854
Died Enflield, SA, 14 June 1870, aged 57

Summary: He was conductor of North Adelaide Choral Society (by 1855). Introduced in 1856 was his anthem When the weary are at rest (“trio for two sopranos and bass, followed by a soprano duet, with a concluding chorus”). In February 1868 he was appointed “Band master, with the rank of Drum Major” of the South Australian Volunteer Artillery.

References: “THE DISSOLVING VIEWS”, South Australian Register (10 August 1853), 2:; [Advertisement], The South Australian Register (21 November 1853), 4: “MUSICAL”, South Australian Register (6 May 1854), 2:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (1 May 1855), 1:; “CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC”, South Australian Register (18 January 1856), 3:; “CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC”, South Australian Register (20 May 1856), 2: “SOUTH AUSTRALIAN VOLUNTEER MILITARY FORCE APPOINTMENT”, South Australian Register (21 February 1868), 3:; “DIED”, South Australian Register (16 June 1870), 2:



LINCK, George
Professor of Music and German
Arrived Sydney, by December 1858
Departed Sydney, 13 January 1862 (per La Hague, for London)

Summary: PProbably recently arrived in December 1858, by January 1859 he was organist and choirmaster of St. Mary’s Balmain, and offering to teach pupils “on the Piano, Violin, and in Singing”.  He accompanied the vocal performers, including Sara FLOWER and the HOWSONS (with whom he had an ongoing association) at Cesare CUTOLO’s concert in February 1860, and later gave several concerts at Balmain. He departed for England in January 1862 on La Hague,, and after the end of the voyage a testimonial to him from his fellow passengers (including Sydney amateur choralist, Rev’d W. Cuthbertson) was published in the Sydney press. A former soldier, he had evidently raised a volunteers corps among passengers onboard the ship.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (23 December 1858), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (19 January 1859), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (22 February 1860), 1:; “BALMAIN NATIONAL SCHOOL”, Empire (25 June 1860), 4:; “CONCERT AT BALMAIN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (26 February 1861), 5:; [Advertisement], Empire (25 June 1861), 1:; “CONCERT AT BALMAIN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (29 June 1861), 4:; [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (21 December 1861), 5:; “CLEARANCES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (14 Januray 1862), 4:; “BALMAIN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 January 1862), 5:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (14 July 1862), 4:



Bandsman 3rd Regiment (Buffs)
Arrived Sydney, 29 August 1823 (per Commodore Hayes, from England)
Departed Sydney, 28 January 1827 (per Woodford and Speke, for India)

References: London, National Archives, PRO, WO12/2118: 3rd Regiment of Foot (Buffs) payrolls 1824-26; microfilm copy at SL-NSW: PRO Reel 3695; “SHIP NEWS”, The Sydney Gazette (4 September 1823), 2:; “Shipping Intelligence”, The Sydney Gazette (30 January 1827), 3:



Professor of Music, pianist
Arrived Sydney, 18 July 1853 (per Wallace, from San Francisco)
Died 3 October 1911, aged 79

Obituary: A well-known figure in the musical world of Melbourne and Australia, in the person of Mr. Otto Linden, has been removed by death, at the age of 79 (says the Melbourne “Argus“). Mr. Linden was a native of Germany. As a young man he went to the California goldfields from which he found his way in 1855 to Melbourne. He stayed in Melbourne then not a city of much musical attraction, only a little time, and went to South America, where he remained a number of years. Returning to Melbourne in the seventies, he quickly assumed a leading position in the musical World, and, with the late Mr. T. H. Guenett, organised the popular concerts of chamber music, which were carried on successfully for some years. When the Hobart International Exhibition opened Mr. Linden accepted the position of its musical director, and acted in a similar capacity subsequently at the Coolgardie Exhibition. Thereafter he settled in Perth, but returned to Melbourne after a few years, and took the control of St. Patrick’s Cathedral Choir. His death took place the other day at-his residence in South Yarra. Mr. Linden was regarded as a sound musician of the German school. He was a Wagnerite of the “sweetly reasonable” type, declaring his acceptance of the new composer as an epoch maker in music, even before he left his native land for California, when Wagner’s adherents were few and far between. Mr. Linden leaves a widow and three grown-up children. A daughter of the late Mr. Linden is now appearing with “The Arcadians” Company in His Majesty’s Theatre, Perth.

References: “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (19 July 1853), 2:; [Advertisement], The Star (20 march 1857), 3:; [Advertisement], Bendigo Advertiser (3 July 1858), 1:; “QUEENSLAND”, The Argus (2 October 1861), 7:; “LYSTER’S OPERA COMPANY. DEBUT OF MISS GERALDINE WARDEN”, Bendigo Advertiser (23 November 1867), 2:; “FIFTY-FIVE YEARS OF MUSIC”, The Argus (18 September 1907), 6:; “MUSICAL AND DRAMATIC NOTES”, The West Australian (14 October 1911), 9:; “IN MEMORIAM”, The Argus (4 October 1912), 1:

Resources: Wagner and his works (illustrative reading by Mr Otto Linden, with recital of Tannhäuser (first Act) ... Independent Hall, Melbourne, Saturday, 19th September, 1885) ([Melbourne? : s.n., 1885])



Vocal pupil (of Henry Witton)
Active Melbourne, 1862

References: [Advertisement], The Courier [Brisbane] (24 October 1862), 1: “THOMAS LINDSAY (Vocal), Queen-st.” [pupil of Henry James Witton]



Active Adelaide, June 1858

References: [Advertisement], South Australian Register (23 June 1858), 1: “MISKA HAUSERE’S FAREWELL CONCERT”, South Australian Register (26 June 1858), 2:



LINGER, Carl Ferdinand August (Charles)
Professor of music, pianist, conductor, composer
Born Berlin, Germany, 15 March 1810
Arrived Adelaide, 7 August 1849 (per Princess Luise, from Hamburg)
Died Adelaide, 16 February 1862


Summary: The purpose of this entry is merely to present as much as is currently known about Linger’s documented compositions, and what sadly appear to be several manuscripts unaccountably missing. In note with interest that Dr. Jula Szuster has (November 2012) addressed “Carl Linger’s Missing Legacy” and “the possible fate of his missing compositions”. In particular, the apparent loss, since 1935-36, of the original score (? and parts) of Linger’s Concert Overture is mysterious and vexing. See also important data on Linger's late relationship with Mathilde Cranz.

April 1853: “The evening’s amusements were concluded with a new version of the National Anthem, written expressly for this concert. We were not surprised to perceive that few Englishmen attempted to join in the parody. Those who have long learned to venerate the beautifully simple strains of God Save the Queen, could only regard as a sort of profanation any attempt to embellish so bright a gem of our national genius with adornments foreign to the melody and the harmony of that spirit-stirring anthem […]”.

Obituary: THE LATE HERR LINGER. The funeral obsequies of the late Herr Linger took place on Monday afternoon. It was not generally known till the Monday morning that this talented musician had died; yet the high esteem in which he was held induced a very large number of persons to avail themselves of the opportunity of testifying their respect to his memory by following his remains to the grave. The funeral procession formed at the residence of the departed in Rundle street, at 3 o’clock, and consisted of the Brunswick Brass Band, the Liedertafel, the hearse, and about 30 coaches and other vehicles, in which were seated the friends of the deceased and other gentlemen anxious to pay the last tribute of respect to a man whose talents as a musician and whose worth as a man have never been disputed. The general arrangements were conducted by Messrs. Eitzen & Co., undertakers, of Rundle-street. Previous to the departure of the mournful procession the Liedertafel sang a solemn dirge, the refrain of which may be expressed in English by the Divine words, “Thy will be done”. The Brunswick Brass Band, which preceded the hearse, performed the “Dead March”, from Handel’s Oratorio of “Saul”, and a similar composition by Here Heydecke, as the procession passed along the principal thoroughfares of the city. This attracted several hundreds of spectators, a great many of whom followed the remains of the departed to their last resting-place. A considerable number of the tradesmen, also, whose business premises were situated in the line of the procession, indicated their appreciation of the loss which society has sustained by partially closing their shops. In fact, the appearance of the city during the funeral was that of a general fast. The solemn burial service of the Church of England was read at the grave in in impressive manner by the Rev. D. J. H. Ibbetson, where, also, the Liedertafel again raised their united voices in the choral hymns, “Integer vita”; and “Nacht und Nacht”. The “kindred earth” was then deposited over the mortal remains of the departed, and the hundreds of sorrowing spectators slowly dispersed. Herr Linger was a man who stood so high in his profession, and was so very generally respected in private life, that we make no apology for the following brief biographical sketch: — He was a native of Berlin, and was born on March 15, 1810. His father was an engraver of some eminence; his mother, a lady of respectability and sterling worth, is still living. At a very early age Herr Linger manifested such a decided taste for music that his father determined to give him every facility for the development of his talents in that direction. He accordingly procured an instructor for the child, who made such rapid progress as a performer on the pianoforte as to be able himself to give lessons on that instrument at the early age of twelve years. After this he was placed under Reissiger and Klein, from whom he obtained a thorough insight into the theory of counterpoint and the general principles of composition. He then commenced his career as a composer, and amongst the first fruits of his genius as such were “six sacred songs”, which were dedicated to the Princess Royal of Prussia. Their publication in Berlin established the reputation of the young composer in his native land, and induced him to aim at still higher attainments. He accordingly visited Milan, Venice, and other cities of Italy for the purpose of obtaining a practical acquaintance with the Italian school of music, and then returned to Berlin, where he composed a great many musical pieces, some of which are regarded by competent judges as possessing great merit. Amongst these were two entire operas, entitled respectively “The Fight with the Dragon” and “Alfred the Great”, three or four masses, several symphonies, cantatas, and other concerted pieces. There was, however, one marked peculiarity in the disposition of Herr Linger, which, however commendable as a virtue in private life, has almost entirely deprived the musical world of the fruits of his genius. We refer to his extreme modesty— a constant tendency to depreciate his own musical attainments—a virtual disclaimer of talents which were conspicuous in his compositions, which were estimated at their true value by those of his friends who best knew how to discriminate between the productions of true genius and the abortions of the charlatan. When asked why he did not publish his compositions his almost invariable reply was in effect, “Germany has plenty of better music than mine in manuscript”. And when his friends expressed a doubt of this, he would shrug his shoulders and reply, “I know better than you”. Herr Linger came to South Australia in 1849. On his arrival he was induced by the representation of his friends to commence farming near Smithfield, where he sank a considerable sum of money. He then sold his country property, and soon established himself in Adelaide as a teacher or music. By his active exertions he succeeded in creating a taste for music in many instances where it did not previously exist, and in cultivating it to a high standard where it did. For several years he was the leader of the Adelaide Choral Society. He was the originator of the present Liedertafel, and was always ready to assist in my undertaking having for its object the cultivation of an art in which he so pre-eminently excelled. He was the successful competitor for the prize offered by the Gawler Institute for the music to the “Song of Australia”. South Australia has been occasionally visited by more brilliant executionists, but we believe that none has ever appeared amongst us possessed of such a thorough knowledge of the fundamental principles of music as the man whose loss, not only his more immediate friends, but every true lover of genuine harmony will long deplore. For many months past Herr Linger has been suffering from a complication of diseases, which have at last terminated in death. For some weeks before his demise he appeared so far convalescent as to induce him to write to his aged mother, informing her that he contemplated revisiting his native home, and that he would sail from South Australia about April next. A relapse, however, took place a few days before his death, which occurred on Sunday afternoon last, at about a quarter to 1 o’clock. He had been walking under the verandah of his dwelling house a few minutes before, but appeared conscious that his end was near at hand.

Linger's will: Carl August Ferdinand Linger deceased I the Honourable Benjamin Boothby one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of South Australia Do by these …. make known unto all Men that on the twenty eighth day of February in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and Sixty two William Ottoman Gerke of Adelaide in the said Province Grocer[?] the executor named in and by the last will and testament of Carl August Ferdinand Linger late of Adelaide aforesaid Professor of Music and deceased a true copy of which said last will and testament is hereunto appear in the Supreme Court aforesaid and claim probate of the said will Whereupon the same was proved approved and registered. And the administration of all and singular the foods and chattels rights and credits and effects of the said Carl August Ferdinand Linger deceased was granted unto the said William Ottoman Gerke. He the said William Ottoman Gerke having first sworn that he believed the paper writing exhibited on this the swearing of the affidavit of the said William Ottoman Gerke marked ‘A’ and filed in this Honourable Court to be the true last Will and Testament of the said Carl August Ferdinand Linger  deceased. [above is a line of writing] And that the said Wilhelm Ottoman Gerke is the executor named in the said Will And that he the said Wilhelm Ottoman Gerke would well and truly execute the said last Will and Testament of the said Carl August Ferdinand Linger deceased and pay his lawful debts so far as his estates would thereunto extend And that he the said Wilhelm Ottoman Gerke would make and exhibit to this Hon. Court a true  and perfect Inventory of all the goods and chattels rights credits and effects of the said deceased on or before the twenty eighth day of August One thousand eight hundred and sixty two and render a just and true account of his executorship when he should be lawfully called upon so to do And lastly that he the said Wilhelm Ottoman Gerke believes that the goods and chattels rights credits and effects of the said deceased at the time of his death within the said Provence and its dependencies did not exceed in nature the sum on Twelve hundred pounds Given at Adelaide the twenty sixth day of March One thousand and eight hundred and sixty two under my hand and the seal of the Supreme Court of the Province of South Australia. Benjamin Boothby This is the last Will and Testament of me Carl August Ferdinand Linger of Adelaide born Berlin. Firstly I desire That all my just Debts, Funeral and Testamentary Expenses be paid and satisfied by my Executor herein after named as soon as conveniently may be after my decease, and secondly I give divide and bequeath all and every my Household Furniture, Linen and Wearing Apparel, Books, Plate, Pictures, China, Horses, Carts, and Carriages, and also all and every sum and amount of Money which may be in my house or about my person or due to me at the time of my decease and also all other my Stocks, Funds and Securities for money Book Debts, Money on Bonds, Bills, Notes or other Securities and all and every other my Estate and Effects whatever and whichever both real and personal whether in possession reversion remainder or expectancy unto Christiane Matilde Cranz born Hoggrefe to and for her own use and benefit absolutely. And nominate constitute and appoint Mr Wilhelm Ottoman Gerke Grocer of Adelaide to be Executor of this my last Will  and hereby revoking all former or other Wills and Testaments by me at any time hereto before made. I declare this to be my last Will and Testament. In Witness whereof I the said Carl August Ferdinand Linger have to this my last Will and Testament set my hand the Thirteenth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and Sixty. Carl August Ferdinand Linger Signed by the Testator Carl August Ferdinand Linger and acknowledged by him to be his last Will and Testament in the presence of us present at the same time and subscribed by us as Witnesses in the presence of the said Testator and of each other. J. W. Schierenbeck [President of the Adelaide Liedertafel] C. Rischkirch[?]  (transcript kindly supplied by Cranz descendent, Jan McInerney, May 2013)

Brewster-Jones, November 1935: The veteran Adelaide conductor. Mr. Thomas Grigg, who is in his 77th year, hopes to produce an orchestral overture of Carl Linger, the MSS. score and parts of which are in his possession, at a Centenary concert next year. The “Concert Overture for Full Or chestra”, as it is described on its title page, in a happy combination of German and English (it is signed “Charles” Linger, not “Carl”), is dated November, 1856, and was apparently composed in Adelaide. The scoring is that of the earlier symphony orchestra with cornopions in G (the obsolete appelation for comets), and saxhorns replacing trumpets and French horns. The overture, which has an “andante” introduction in C minor, leading to an “allegro ma non troppo” in the tonic major, employs a number of classical devices, and is written with a definite knowledge of the orchestra and orchestral color. Its performance in Adelaide will be of considerable musical interest, and will throw a new light upon the popular composer of “The Sons of Australia”. Carl Linger was the first conductor of the Adelaide Liedertafel, from 1858 to 1864, so that this concert overture was written two years before the foundation of this society. Herr Carl Linger was then one of the most renowned musicians in this State.

Brewster-Jones, December 1935: Considerable interest has been aroused by the discovery, in the library of Mr. Thomas Grigg, of the “Concert Overture” for orchestra, by Carl Linger, which is to be performed for the Centenary. Upon Mr. Grigg bringing it under the writer’s notice a few days ago, a cursory examination was made and an estimate, published in “The Advertiser” of November 22, of its musical value; the present owner being advised to bring it forward at a special concert next year. The opinion then expressed that “the overture ... employs a number of classical devices, and is written with a definite knowledge of the orchestra and orchestra color”, has been fully endorsed by the joint views of Professor E. Harold Davies and Mr. Harold Parsons, who have been given an opportunity to inspect the score. “Surprising and Interesting” Dr. Davies expresses himself as follows: “The Concert Overture of Carl Linger, dating back to 1856, is as surprising as it is interesting. It is undoubtedly written in the good old “Kapellmeister style”, but that is only to say that Carl Linger was a very thorough musician, skilled in form and the art of orchestration—and obviously saturated with classical idioms. I wonder whether my old friend, Mr. Grigg, has any more treasures like this overture; for in these sophisticated days, when we musicians are prone to exaggerate our own importance, it is refreshing to find that our South Australian predecessors of nearly a century ago were such competent fellows. He might perhaps “rub it in” a bit more with other similar works of the old days. And the proper humility that we all may feel is further increased when I look back to the splendid records of the Adelaide String Quartet Club which did so much for chamber music as long ago as 1880. In that connection it is particularly interesting to know that Percy Grainger's father— J. H. Grainger—was a moving spirit as well as the indefatigable secretary and organiser of the club.” Mr. Parsons, who examined the work with the writer, evinced enthusiasm at its general lay-out and skilled workmanship—furnishing the following encomium of this eighty-year-old find: “I have just spent a very interesting morning perusing the orchestral score of a concert overture by Carl Linger. The title page informs me that the work was composed in the year 1856. The composer has adhered to the traditional style of that period and earlier, and has demonstrated by means of the overture that he was a musician of more than ordinary ability. The thematic material is of considerable interest, and evinces a very happy melodic sense. Moreover, he knew how to write suitably for the various instruments of the orchestra. It is rather interesting to note that sax horns are used in the place of French horns, the latter instrument being invariably utilised by composers in this type of composition. I am inclined to think that the substitution is due to the fact that French horn players were not to be obtained in these early days of music in Adelaide. I am glad to know that Mr. Thomas Grigg has a performance of the overture in view, and I look forward with considerable interest to hearing the work.” The recent history of the score and parts was supplied by Mr. Gus Cawthorne, who remembers his late father, Mr. Charles Cawthorne, presenting them to Mr. Grigg upon his own abandonment of orchestral activities about 10 years ago. Mr. Cawthorne had often intended producing the work, but somehow the suggestion had remained shelved. “Other Manuscripts” Mr. Miller, the associate of Mr. Cawthorne, remembers other manuscripts of Carl Linger being in the latter’s possession, and efforts will be made to see that they are traced and brought to light for the Centennial music festival […]

Brewster-Jones, February 1936: The discovery of six vocal compositions by the late Carl Linger, in the library of Mr. Theo. Geyer, Tanunda, is of considerable musical importance to this State. Although two of these works have been performed in the Langmeil Lutheran Church, Tanunda, they are all unknown to the general public, and arrangements have been made to broadcast a special programme of Carl Linger music from station 5 AD on Sunday, March 29. Several motets for unaccompanied voices, and a scholarly setting of “Vater Unser”, “The Lord’s Prayer”, for five voices and organ, which belong to the Tanunda collection, will be presented. The appreciative review, the Carl Linger concert overture for full orchestra, which appeared in these columns several weeks ago, has been fully endorsed by leading Adelaide musicians. The motets and other vocal compositions, the manuscripts of which have been given careful perusal, are apparently of even greater musical significance, and it is no exaggeration to say that they stamp Carl Linger as a composer of unusual quality and musical erudition. “Scholarly Musician” This opinion is whole-heartedly supported by the Director of the Elder Conservatorium (Professor E. Harold Davies), who says: “After perusing the overture for orchestra, it is an even greater delight to discover, in the manuscripts of vocal works of Carl Linger, now made available for inspection, that he was not only a scholarly musician but that he possessed creative gifts of an exceptional order. The motets, the anthem, for voices and orchestra, and the setting of the Lord’s Prayer for voices and organ, which I have looked at, are quite impressive. It is evident that Linger was a devoted follower of both Schubert and Beethoven, but particularly the former. His glowing melody and many of his harmonic idioms are reminiscent of that great master. I sincerely hope for an adequate performance of these works during the Centenary year.” The newly discovered compositions are “Vier Motetten” (four motets) for soprano, alto, tenor, and bass, dated 1845-46. They are: 1) “Almighty, I lift up my eyes on high”: (2) “Thy holy birth”; (3) “Come to Him all ye who labor”; (4) “When to our prejudiced errors no ray breaks through”. “Dignity And Majesty” There is dignity and almost majesty about the musical quality of these works. There is no lack of contrapuntal invention, and still no paucity of harmonic coloring. Fugal entries and canonic imitation are happily introduced, and other devices such as the “pedal point” effectively employed. The arrangement of “Vater Unser”, a setting of “The Lord’s Prayer”, for soprano, alto, tenor, and two bass voices in organ accompaniment, also dates from 1846. The anthem, “O Lord, who is as Thee”, for four voices and full orchestra, is dated 1851, and is signed “Carles Linger”, no doubt as a partial concession to the English language—which is employed also in the setting. There is evidence of a thorough musical training in all these compositions, and we may be proud to claim this pioneer composer, who set such an excellent standard in his day. Linger was an exceptionally modest artist, and we are indebted to his friends and their descendants who have carefully preserved his music for future use. The further discovery of interesting manuscripts leads the writer to appeal to readers who may have either Linger or other MSS. hidden away in their musical libraries to bring them forward for the purposes of research or public performance.

References: “ARRIVED”, South Australian Register (8 August 1849), 4:; “IMPORTS”, South Australian Register (10 April 1860), 2:; “DEATHS”, South Australian Register (17 February 1862), 2:;  “THE LATE HERR LINGER”, South Australian Register (18 February 1862), 2:; [Obituary], Süd Australische Zeitung (19 February 1862), 2:; [News], The South Australian Advertiser (24 February 1862), 7:; “PROBATES AND ADMINISTRATION”, South Australian Register (23 April 1862), 3:; “OVERTURE BY CARL LINGER. Work To Be Produced By Mr. Thomas Grigg”, The Advertiser (22 November 1935), 24:; “EIGHTY-YEAR-OLD MUSICAL FIND. Carl Linger’s Concert Overture. By H. BREWSTER JONES”, The Advertiser (11 December 1935), 6:; “VOCAL MUSIC BY CARL LINGER. Important Discoveries at Tanunda. BROADCAST FROM 5 AD ON MARCH 29. By H. BREWSTER JONES”, The Advertiser (27 February 1936), 19:

Resources: John Horner, Linger, Carl Ferdinand August (1810-1862), Australian Dictionary Biography 5 (1974):

Extant musical works:
- Vier Gedichte (in Musik gesetzt fur eine Sopran oder Tenorstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; von Geibel, Kletke, Platen, Trutz von Carl Linger [photocopy of composer’s MS; also includes a fifth song] (1 Wenn still mit seinen letzten Flammen (Geibel), 2 In der Ferne (Kletke), 3 Mein Herz u. deine Stimme (Platen), 4 In der Ferne (Trutz), and 5 Ich kannte nur des Lebensschmerzen)
- Sechs deutsche Lieder (mit Begleitung des Pianforte in Musik gesetzt und den Fraeulein Eliza und Julie Praetorius zugeeignet von Carl Linger) (Berlin: Groebenschutz u. Seiler, [184-?]) (1 Muttertänderlei (von Bürger), 2 Schweizerlied (von Göthe), 3 Amen (von Karoline), 4 Herbstlied (von Ludw. Tieck), 5 Endliche Fahrt (von Karoline), 6 Mailied (von Göthe))
- Vier Motetten (für Sopran, Alt, Tenor, und Bass, componiert von Carl Linger, 1845-46) (1 Hymne, 2 Motette (Klopstock), 3 Motette (Herder), 4 Motette (Spieker)) [photocopy of MS]
- Vater unser (composiert von Carl Linger) [photocopy of MS, for SATBB choir, and organ]
- Hymne, “Oh Lord who is as thee” (for Soprano, Alto, Tenor & Basso and Orchester composed by Carles Linger, 1851) [photocopy of MS]
- The Song of Australia (“to which the Prize of Twenty Guineas was awarded by the Gawler Institute on the Occasion of its Second Anniversary 1859”; (words: Mrs. C.J. Carleton) [Gawler: Gawler Institute, 1859]; also original MS (? Gawler Library), and many later editions; “THE PRIZE SONG”, The South Australian Advertiser (5 November 1859), 2:; [Advertisement]: “THE PRIZE SONG OF AUSTRALIA”, South Australian Register (16 December 1859), 1:; “GRAND CONCERT AT THE GAWLER INSTITUTE”, The South Australian Advertiser (20 December 1859), 4:
- Sechs Zwischenspiele [whereabouts of score unknown]

Other documented works:
- Instrumental Quartette (played by “Messrs. [S.W.] Wallace, Osborne, Heinerbein [sic], and Mater”): [Advertisement], South Australian Register (20 January 1851), 2:
- God Save the Queen (“Solo, Quartette, and Chorus, written expressly for this Concert”): [Advertisement], South Australian Register (31 March 1853), 2:; [Advertisement]: “MADAME M. CRANZ’S CONCERT”, South Australian Register (12 April 1853), 2:; “MADAME CRANZ’S CONCERT”, South Australian Register (15 April 1853), 2:
- Vocal Quartette Die Nelken und die Rosen and Scena and Aria Through long dull Years: [Advertisement], South Australian Register (11 July 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (3 August 1854), 1:; “LINGER MEMORIAL CONCERT”, South Australian Register (11 September 1863), 2:
- Overture to the opera The Combat with the Dragon: [Advertisement], South Australian Register (11 July 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (30 September 1857), 1:
- Duet (vocal; “Madame Cranz and Mr. Daniels”): [Advertisement], South Australian Register (11 July 1854), 1:
- Scena and Aria (vocal; “Madame Cranz”): [Advertisement], South Australian Register (11 July 1854), 1:
- Der 93rd Psalm: Der Herr ist Koenig: The Lord is King: [Advertisement], South Australian Register (20 September 1855), 1:
- Lobgesang in der Hoehe. “Gloria” from the Mass in B [flat]: [Advertisement], South Australian Register (20 September 1855), 1:
- Prelude No 1 “To the Memory of the Fallen HeroesPrelude for the Orchestra in G minor; Prelude No 2 “Praise and thanks to the Lord for Victory and Peace—Prelude for Orchestra in D major (“the two Preludes and Nos. 1,2,4 and 11 were expressly composed and arranged for this Concert by Herr Linger”): 1 Funeral march on the Death of a Hero (Beethoven); 2 Chorus Sweetly rest in God’s own peace [Linger]; 4 Funeral anthem I am the Resurrection [Linger]; 11 Chorus Praise the Lord, O my Soul [Linger]: [Advertisement], South Australian Register (11 August 1856), 1:; also (18 August 1856), 1:; “The musical event of the season […]”, South Australian Register (23 August 1856), 4:
- Overture (“for opening the season”): “THE CHORAL SOCIETY’S CONCERT”, South Australian Register (2 April 1857), 3:
- From King Alfred (opera): 1 Triumphal Procession; 2 Air de Ballet:  [Advertisement], South Australian Register (30 September 1857), 1:; “ADELAIDE CHORAL SOCIETY”, South Australian Register (1 October 1857), 2:; [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (17 February 1859), 1:
- Overture Cymbeline: [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (13 July 1858), 1:; “ADELAIDE CHORAL SOCIETY” , The South Australian Advertiser (15 July 1858), 2:; “THE CHORAL SOCIETY’S CONCERT”, South Australian Register (15 July 1858), 3:  
- Fantasia on the Song of Australia (“Fantaisie brilliante on the Gawler prize Song of Australia for pianoforte): advertised as published [Adelaide: Samuel Marshall’s Musical Repository, 1860], NO COPY IDENTIFIED: “GRAND CONCERT AT THE GAWLER INSTITUTE”, The South Australian Advertiser (14 December 1859), 3:; [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (31 December 1859), 1: “Will be published on Tuesday, January 3, A FANTASIA BRILLIANTE for the Pianoforte, on the Gawler Prize Song of Australia, by HERR CARL LINGER”; [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (11 January 1860), 1: “MARSHALL'S MUSICAL REPOSITORY […] Where may be had Herr Linger’s Fantasia, on the Song of Australia.”
- Tagerchor [sic] [? Jägerchor]  (“quartetto for brass instruments”): ‘TANUNDA”, South Australian Advertiser (29 December 1865), 3:
- Sanctus & Benedictus: “LINGER MEMORIAL CONCERT”, South Australian Register (11 September 1863), 2:
- When to our prejudiced errors (Motett): “LINGER MEMORIAL CONCERT”, South Australian Register (11 September 1863), 2:
- Liebchen Schätse and Drinking Song: “LINGER MEMORIAL CONCERT”, South Australian Register (11 September 1863), 2:



Choirmaster, vocalist
Born London, 1823
Arrived Sydney, October 1841 (per William Turner)
Died Sydney, 8 July 1894, aged 71

Launceston, 1845: We understand that the choir of the Synagogue is in rehearsal, previous to the consecration, under the able tuition of Mr. F. Howson sen., to be led and conducted by Mr. Lipman, lately from Sydney, whose talent in the Hebrew tongue is universally acknowledged by the members of that persuasion, and we doubt not that the effect will be very imposing.

Muswell Brook: Some songs were also sung in a masterly style by Mr. Lipman, Mr. Kirkwood, and Mr. Haynes.

References: “CLEARANCES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (13 September 1843), 2:; “DEPARTURE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (13 January 1845), 2:; “JEWISH SYNAGOGUE”, The Cornwall Chronicle (14 May 1845), 2:; “DEPARTURES”, Launceston Examiner (18 June 1845), 4:; ? “MUSWELL BROOK”, The Maitland Mercury (25 March 1846), 2:; “UTTERING A FORGERY”, The Maitland Mercury (26 September 1846), 4:; “MARRIED”, The Sydney Morning Herald (24 June 1847), 4:; “Funerals”, The Sydney Morning Herald (9 July 1894), 8:

Resources: Colin Choat, Lipman, Lewis (1823-1894), Obituaries Australia



Musician, violinist
Born Germany ? 1833/1843
Arrived Melbourne, February 1857 (per Broughton Hall, from Liverpool)
Active Victoria, 1866
Died Chewton, VIC, 1905

References: The Victoria Post Office Directory (1866), 259:; “CHEWTON BOROUGH COUNCTIL”, Bendigo Advertiser (2 March 1883), 3:; “MINING ACCIDENT AT CHEWTON”, The Argus (31 October 1891), 11:

Resources: Ray Meyer, “Die Wandermusikanten von Salzgitter (the wandering musicians of Salzgitter)”, Ancestor: quarterly journal of the Genealogical Society of Victoria (Autumn 1991), 4-5:



Music and general retailer
Active Maitland, by 1843
Died Maitland, 7 July 1873, in the 63rd year of his age

Summary: In May 1847, the Maitland “bookseller and druggist” William Lipscomb was selling: “Nicholson's Flute Preceptor, Davidson’s Accordion Preceptor, West’s Singing Preceptor, Jossue’s Violin Preceptor.”

1845: To the Professors of the Violin of the Hunter river District. GENTLEMEN. Having heard that many of you have been venting execrations on my organs of vision, for selling you inferior Violin Strings, and that others have hung up their instruments in despair, I do not wonder at it, although I deeply regret the occurrence; for now they are all sold I will candidly admit that they were as rascally a lot as ever came into the colony. But most of you are aware that no better could be procured in Sydney. I am happy now to inform you that I have just received from England a fresh supply of a superior description. Those I have already sold have been highly approved of. Among others they have met with the approbation of three Scotch gentlemen, who are generally known to be very reserved and cautious in giving praise, but as ready to kick up a row as eat a meal should anything offend them. I am, Gentlemen, Your obedient servant, W. LIPSCOMB. P.S. I have just heard that several bagpipes have been engaged for the booths on the race- course. It is my opinion that if half-a-dozen of the players were allowed to enter the regions below with their instruments, the devil himself would evacuate his dominions. Of course the same number would rout a whole army of fiddlers. I would therefore advise the latter to be prepared for the occasion, and have good strings to their instruments. W. L.”

1850: ENGLISH AND ROMAN VIOLIN STRINGS. W. L. begs to draw the attention of those jolly fiddlers, or, more correctly speaking, the professional gentlemen engaged, to perform each week in the iron bark bowers on the Race-course, to the above assortment of Strings. He need not remind them how plenty of tone suits out-of-door amateurs, or those who have made up their minds to enjoy themselves by welting the floor for an hour or two, and these strings will stand rasping away upon in glorious style. A friend of mine, who had tried them, told me they were strong enough to tether a donkey.

References: [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (7 January 1843), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (19 July 1845), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (10 October 1846), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (8 May 1847), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (26 May 1847), 3: ; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (17 May 1848), 3:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (17 August 1850), 3:; “DEATHS”, The Maitland Mercury (12 July 1873), 1: 



LISSIGNOL, Eugène Adolphe
Violinist, harpist, composer, diplomat, translator, natural historian
Active Melbourne, 1859-70

Image: FAREWELL BANQUET TO THE FRENCH CONSUL (Illustrated Melbourne News, 25 July 1862): Lissignol, seated at table, fourth from left:

Summary: A “pupil of Thalberg and Lefebure-Wely, recently arrived from Europe”, Lissingnol advertised his first Melbourne concert in January 1859. After appearing in several other concerts in his first months, he then took to giving fencing displays on stage, and his professional musical activities seem thereafter to have ceased, though he continued to participate as an amateur (for instance, playing harp in the orchestra for a Musical Union concert in May 1861). By November 1863, he was employed in the chancellery of the French Consulate, though in May 1864 “Eugene Lissignol, of Melbourne, tobacco manufacturer and commission agent” was newly insolvent. As secretary of the consulate, in 1866, in association with the Intercolonial Exhibition, he published French translations on books by Ferdinand von Mueller (Notes sur la végétation indigène et introduite de l’Australie) and William Henry Archer (Progrès de Victoria, depuis 1835, jusqu'a 1866). In April 1868, the University of Melbourne awarded him degree ad eundum of Bachelor of Arts, along with such other notable figures as J. H. Plunkett, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sydney, and the Chief Justice of Victoria. He was unanimously elected secretary the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria in October 1868, and served on the committees of other horticulutral and agricultural societies. In 1869 he was also Superintendent of Royal Park, where however his officious behaviour brought him into dispute with Mr Oldfield, a City Councillor, in August when “one of the young gentlemen who was playing in a football match in the park, to put on this coat and leave the ground, otherwise he should have handcuffs put on him—which was very insulting. Mr. Lissignol was not particular as to whom he insulted, for not long since he had him (Councillor Oldfield) under his finger— (laughter)—because he happened to be exercising a horse on private land which was not part of the park. If he insulted persons who were on private land, it was not surprising that he should have insulted the football club.” Finally, in May 1870, according to the Argus: “A report which was circulated on Saturday to the effect that M. Lissignol, late secretary of the Acclimatisation Society, who was about to sail by the mail to Bombay, where he had been appointed as French vice-consul, was on the eve of being arrested for embezzlement, caused no little excitement and consternation in Melbourne especially amongst the French residents. The report was found to be true, a warrant having been issued for his arrest on a charge of converting to his own use a cheque for £100 entrusted to him for payment into the bank […]”. However, according to a later report: “The B. M. S. Avoca sailed punctually […] The matter was settled, and Lissignol was discharged barely in time to catch the mail.” The court's resolution of the matter was not without its critics in the press, and “LISSIGNOL’S DEFALCATIONS” were discussed on the floor of parliament in June, it being concluded however that there “were no materials on which the Government could proceed against the person who had got away from the country.”

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (15 January 1859), 8:; “MR LISSIGNOL’S CONCERT”, The Argus (24 January 1859), 5:;“MEETING IN AID OF THE SUFFERERS BY THE LATE FIRE AT NORTH MELBOURNE”, The Argus (1 March 1859), 6:; [Advertisement], The Argus (8 March 1859), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (13 April 1859), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (18 April 1859), 8:; “THE THEATRES”, The Argus (20 April 1859), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (10 May 1859), 8:; [Advertisement], Bendigo Advertiser (16 June 1859), 1:; [Advertisement], The Star (25 June 1859), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 May 1861), 8:; [News], The Argus (18 November 1863), 4:; “NEW INSOLVENTS”, The Star (30 May 1864), 3:; “THE OPENING OF THE BALLARAT EXHIBITION”, The Argus (29 August 1866), 6:; “UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE”, The Argus (20 April 1868), 6:; “NOTES AND NEWS”, South Bourke Standard (9 October 1868), 2:; “THE GAZETTE”, The Argus (22 March 1869), 5:; “CITY COUNCIL”, The Argus (31 August 1869), 1:; [News], The Argus (23 May 1870), 4:; “MELBOURNE”, The Maitland Mercury (26 May 1870), 2:; “VICTORIA”, South Australian Register (30 May 1870), 5:; “PARLIAMENT”, The Argus (9 June 1870), 6:; “THE MONTH”, Illustrated Australian News for Home Readers (18 June 1870), 105:

Musical works:
Giralda (Spanish dance for the piano forte) (Melbourne: De Gruchy & Leigh Lithogrs., 1859)
Waltz—Toorak (“First time of performance”) [April 1859]
Grand Trio, “The Huguenots“ (Meyerbeer) (Arranged for the Pianoforte, Harmouinm, and Violin by Mons. Lissignol) (June 1859)

Other references: “PROCÈS-VERBAUX”, Bulletin de la Société impériale zoologique d'acclimatation 7 (1870), 615:; “KNIGHTS TEMPLAR”, The Freemasons’ quarterly (28 January 1871), 79:



LITOLFF, Francis
Band leader (Victoria Quadrille Band), music-seller (Litolff and Glen), piano tuner (formerly eight years with Messrs. Blackwood), composer
Active Melbourne, by 1857
Died Richmond, VIC, 25 April 1886, in his 83rd year

References: “Letters List”, The Argus (23 September 1856), 6:; [Advertisement], The Argus (12 September 1857), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (19 September 1857), 7:; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 June 1858), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (15 January 1859), 6:; “Deaths”, The Argus (26 April 1886), 1:

The Curaçoa Polka (F. Litolff; Musical souvenir of the first visit to Melbourne of H. M. S. S. Curaçoa, Commodore Sir William Wiseman, September, 1864) (Melbourne: R. J. Paling, 1864)
The Comet Galop (composed expressly), in The Illustrated Melbourne Post (24 February 1865)



Pianist, piano tuner
Active VIC, 1861

References: [News], Gippsland Times (23 October 1861), 2:; [Advertisement], Gippsland Times (6 November 1861), 3: “THATCHER”, Gippsland Times (22 November 1861), 3:

Associations: pianist to Charles Thatcher



Amateur organist
Active Sydney, 1872

1872: Mr. Lloyd, who followed, entered under peculiar circumstances. He confessed to not being able to read music at all, and declined playing any of the six pieces. His manipulation of the keyboard was, however, remarkable, considering he kept the coupler out, and he gave evidence of great musical powers entirely undeveloped. His selected piece was a marvel in its way. Commencing with the “March in Athalie,” it went off at a tangent into “Pilgrims of the Night,” and ultimately lost itself in a pleasing compound of the “Olia Podrida” character.

References: “ORGAN CONTEST AT THE EXHIBITION BUILDING”, The Sydney Morning Herald (14 May 1872), 3:



LLOYD, Edwin
Professor of Piano, Organ, and Singing, choirmaster, composer
Active Melbourne, by 1889
Departed Brisbane, mid 1901
Died Natal, South Africa, 28 January 1903

1889: We have received for review Beneath Australian Skies, a cantata with scenic effects. It is a local production, for which Messrs H. A. Corbet and E. Lloyd are responsible as librettist and composer respectively. From a preface to the work it appears that their idea was to arrange a series of tableaux, musically illustrated, representing “some of the various shades of thought that are produced by the contemplation of Australia as a settlement that will be a nation in the future.” The originality which Messrs. Corbet and Lloyd claim for their work cannot be disputed, and we sincerely hope that it will not be imitated, for both words and music are remarkable for their want of interest.

Obituary: Mr. Edwin Lloyd, who was a professional musician for many years in Brisbane, and organist of St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, died at Addington Hospital, Durban, Natal, on the 28th January, from acute pneumonia. The deceased gentleman bad been nearly three years in Natal, and held the position of accountant in the firm of M’Ilwaine and Company, Field-street, Durban, and he was organist of the Berea Presbyterian Church, Durban […]

References: “MUSICAL NOTES”, The Argus (7 December 1889), 4:; “Our Ballarat Letter”, Camperdown Chronicle (7 January 1890), 2:; [Advertisement], The Brisbane Courier (21 July 1900), 6:; “MUSICAL ECHOES”, The Brisbane Courier (14 October 1890), 7:; “OUR BALLARAT LETTER”, Camperdown Chronicle (11 December 1890), 3:;  “Music. Musical Echoes”, The Queenslander (3 January 1891), 19: [Advertisement], The Brisbane Courier (18 March 1891), 2:; “BENEFIT TO MR. EDWIN LLOYD”, The Brisbane Courier (19 July 1900), 4:; “BENEFIT CONCERT”, The Brisbane Courier (9 May 1901), 6:; “PERSONAL”, The Brisbane Courier (2 March 1903), 5:; “WEDDING”, The Brisbane Courier (31 May 1909), 7: 



LOCHÉE, Alfred (? Francis)
Amateur musician
Born 8 March 1811
Alfred died WA, 23 April 1887
Charles died Perth, 22 November 1893, aged 82

Summary: More likely perhaps to be Alfred Lochee (reputed to be “musical”), than his twin brother Francis (journalist and propreitor of the Inquirer). Francis married James Purkis’s youngest daughter Emma in 1846. One or other of the Lochees is probably the author of most of the musical commentary in the Inquirer, as notably the review of the sacred concert in May 1845.

References: “Performance of Sacred Music”, Inquirer (14 May 1845), 1:; “MARRIED”, Inquirer (2 September 1846), 2:; “CHORAL SOCIETY’S CONCERT”, The Inquirer (20 January 1869), 3:; “DEATH OF MR. ALFRED LOCHEE”, The Daily News (23 April 1887), 3:; “OUR JUBILEE”, The Inquirer (6 August 1890), 3:; “Death”, The West Australian (24 November 1893), 4:; “DEATH OF MR. LOCHEE”, The Inquirer (24 November 1893), 14:; “DEATH OF MR. FRANCIS LOCHEE J.P.”, The West Australian (24 November 1893), 5:; “AFTER MANY YEARS”, The West Australian (25 July 1919), 8: 



Bandsman (HMS Carysfort)
Visiting Sydney August 1845

References: “FLEECING NEPTUNE’S MUSICIANS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (15 August 1846), 2:



LODER, George (Patrick Henry)
Pianist, flautist, vocalist, conductor, composer
Born Bath, England, baptised 14 November 1816
Arrived (1) Sydney, 5 July 1856 (per Horizont, from San Francisco, 27 April)
Departed (1) Sydney, 24 September 1857 (per Electra, for London)
Arrived (2) Melbourne, 17 January 1862 (per Voltigern, from London, 4 October 1861) 
Died Adelaide, 15 July 1868

LODER, Emma (Miss Emma NEVILLE)
Soprano vocalist
Born England, c.1833
Arrived Melbourne, 17 January 1862
Died Adelaide, 5 December 1867 

Summary: Loder was son of George Loder (1794-1829), “musician”, and his second wife Mary Cook, and was born at Kingsmead Terrace, Bath; he was brother of pianist and composer Kate Loder (1805-1904), nephew of Bath violinist John David Loder, cousin of the well-known composer and conductor Edward Loder (1813-1865), and presumably also cousin of another musician George Loder, of Bath, who died in 1829 at the age of 25. He had reportedly moved to the United States by 1836, living first in Baltimore. His song I love the world right well appeared in The New Yorker on 23 June 1838. In the mid 1840s he was principal of the New York Vocal Institute, and member of the Philharmonic and Vocal Societies of which he was a founder. His The New York Glee Book (1844) contains several of his original part-songs. By 1852 he was in San Francisco, whence he sailed for Australia in 1856, having been called on to take over the musical direction of Anna Bishop’s tour after Bochsa’s death (Loder had previously been Bishop’s accompanist, and had conducted for her and Bochsa). On arrival, the last nights of Bishop’s Sydney opera season was still being conducted by Charles Packer, so Loder teamed up during his first month in the colony with another former Californian associate, Miska Hauser. With Hauser and local musicians including Edward Deane and William Paling, he played contrabasso in Mayseder’s Grand Sextette in Sydney on 4 August. Loder’s “opportune arrival in Sydney, and experience in musical direction are fortuitous circumstances”, Hauser then advertised in mid August, to his announcement of a series of “three classical chamber concerts, by subscription […] to include the compositions of Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn, Mendelssohn, and other great authors: Miska Hauser will be assisted by Mr. George Loder, a distinguished conductor and author, recently arrived amongst us, and whom we hear will have the entire Management of all the details of the series.” The program included Beethoven’s C minor Quartet (“a composition judiciously chosen as giving to a general audience a better idea of the peculiar idiosyncracies of the great author than perhaps any other”), Haydn’s “Emperor”, and Onslow’s “God Save the Queen”, inciting the Herald to add “One word of Mr. Loder. The excellent arrangement of the programme, and the conduct of the whole of the performances, show him to be an artist of superior taste, and a gentleman long required in Sydney; and we venture to predict that he will command the same position here as he has maintained in other parts of the world, and that upon his return to Sydney his efforts to cultivate the growing taste for classical music will receive a satisfactory reward.” Meanwhile, Loder, billed as “Principal Director of the Philharmonic Sooiety of New York, and late Musical Director in America for Jenny Lind, &c, &c.”, also conducted concerts for Clarisse Cailly, before taking charge of Bishop’s company (including Coulon, Laglaise, and another import from San Francisco, flautist Julius Siede) for her Melbourne appearances in September. The company then moved on to Adelaide in December, back through Melbourne to Tasmania in January 1857, Melbourne (an old friend, Stephen Massett, in his memoirs, noted he had a “good dinner” with Loder there on 3 March before going on to the Philharmonic concert to hear Bishop and Hauser), and finally Sydney again in June. Loder composed several works during this first tour. At the end of her concert at the Hobart Theatre Royal in January 1857 Bishop, as “the pupil”, and Loder as “the music-master”, performed his comedy The Celebrated Singing Lesson. In December 1856 in Adelaide, and again in February 1857, Bishop introduced a “new song, for the Voice and Flute”, The Sea Nymph, composed expressly for her by Loder. In Sydney in August 1857, Loder had two new works of vastly contrasted natures; at the Royal Victoria he arranged the music for a “new local extravaganza”, entitled The Lady Killer, or The Devil in Sydney, by James Simmonds (including excerpts from Ernani and Lucretia Borgia); while at a grand oratorio at St. Mary‘s, Bishop and company performed a “Motette (In Canone), composed for this occasion” by Loder, Regina Apostolorum. The oratorio program also included a Grand Aria für Flute, composed and performed by Julius Siede. When Bishop sailed for South American in September, Loder and Bishop’s agent Rees sailed instead for London to make preparations for her projected English return tour, her first London appearance in ten year duly taking place, with Loder conducting, on 13 December 1858, to considerable acclaim for Bishop. Her reception was “enthusiastic beyond measure”, though Loder received mixed reveiws. Davison in the The Musical World, who took a special interest in the event perhaps not least for his pupil and future wife’s (Arabella Goddard) participation, repodruced the Morning Herald’s opinion: “The conductor, Mr. G. Loder, did not seem to have much control over his orchestra, except in a somewhat lugubrious overture of his own composition, “suggested” (according to the programme) by Scott's “Marmion,“ but which we are rather inclined to think must have been “suggested” by certain inspirations of Carl Maria von Weber, composer of the opera of Der Frieschutz, &c. This overture, at least, went well; but all the other pieces with which the band had to do—and, beyond all, the unfortunate Concert-stiick [Weber, with Goddard]—the less said the better”, while noting even-handedly that the morning papers differed with “regard to [the merits] of Mr. George Loder’s overture, which they pronounce extremely clever, and which we were not fortunate enough to hear.” Loder married his second wife, the young singer Emma Neville in London on 19 January 1860, and his new romantic “opera” Pets of the Parterre (libretto by J. Sterling Coyne) opened at London’s Lyceum in November 1860. In the 1861 census he was listed as “composer and vocalist, 42, Mornington Road, Pancras, London”. That year, too, he developed a new “Lyric dramatic entertainment”, The Old House at Home (the title from the ballad, The Old House at Home, from his cousin Edward Loder’s opera Francis the First), for himself and Neville to perform (the text by Mark Ibberson Jervis). This was the first piece the Loders performed on arrival in Melbourne in February 1862, though the Argus found that Loder was unable to sustain the interest of the audience between Neville’s appearances. A second piece by Loder, The Rival Prima Donnas, was introduced later that month in Ballarat, with Neville opposite Emma Henderson. When Anthony Reiff left Australia in September 1863, Lyster engaged Loder to conduct his English Opera Company (Emma Neville also joined the company), which he did until early 1866. Loder and Neville had settled in Adelaide by mid 1866, and were active in the local concert scene there. They last appeared together at Pauline Wienbarg’s Adelaide concert in November 1867, and Emma Loder died suddenly of typhus fever on 5 December. Loder introduced several songs “expressly composed” for Neville in his concert programs, as well as other occasional pieces. Only three printed Australian works survive, including the The Prince Alfred Waltz, issued for the prince’s visit to Adelaide in 1867 (for which Loder directed the music), and his song Oh! Boyhood’s Days which T. H. Rainford later popularised and which was published posthumously. At Loder’s funeral, a Dirge by Loder’s former friend, also recently-deceased, the Adelaide clarinettist-composer, Theodor Heydecke. was played by a quintet from Schrader‘s Band. In 1866, Loder made the published piano arrangement of Heydecke's Finnigan’s Wake Polka. Loder had died after a long illness at Adelaide on 15 July 1868, aged 52, of phthisis alcoholism, tuberculosis worsened by the consumption of alcohol. He may well have decided to return to Australia partly for health reasons. However, in other respects, Australia did not live up to its Loder’s expectations, as an obituary related: “The telegraph announces the death, yesterday, at Adelaide, of Mr. George Loder, the well-known composer of music, and at one time the conductor of the Lyster opera troupe here. Mr. Loder had an excellent reputation in London, and arrived in Australia some years ago in company with Mrs. Loder [...] to give musical and dramatic entertainments. In these they were less successful than, perhaps, they had a right to expect. Their last engagement was played in Adelaide, where Mrs. Loder died some time ago; and for months past Mr. Loder has lingered in gradually declining health, a victim of broken hopes and spirits.“

Adelaide, April 1867: Mr. Ellard was assisted by Mr. and Mrs. Loder, and Mr. R. B. White […] In the charming air, “Dove Sono” from Mozart’s opera “Le Nozze di Figaro”, Mrs. Loder exhibited the distinguishing qualities of her powerful voice to advantage, the feelings which the piece is designed to express being well displayed.

Obituary, London: From our own [Adelaide] correspondent” [The Era (22 February 1868)]: Mrs. George Loder (late Miss Emma Neville) died of typhus fever on the 5th [December]., after a short illness. She was formerly a member of Lyster’s Opera Company, and afterwards visited Adelaide, accompanied by her husband, Mr. George Loder, in an entertainment, entitled “At Home” and “Odds and Ends”, since which time she has remained in Adelaide, teaching music and singing. I believe she was formerly a member of Mr. Buckstone's company at the Haymarket, as a comedy actress. We have had none her to equal her, and her place will not be easily filled up in the Profession.

Obituary, Adelaide: Our readers will regret, if they are not surprised, to hear of the death of Mr. George Loder, the musician, in the prime of life. The event took place on Wednesday morning at about 11 o’clock. The immediate cause of his death was phthisis, but Mr. Loder has suffered a great many months from general debility and the prostration of his ordinary physical powers. It will be remembered that he was formerly of Lyster’s Operatic Company. Few men, comparatively speaking, to be able to wield the baton with equal skill. His accomplishments as a pianist were also of a very high order. Unquestionably the secret of his success was the fact that he was a lover of music for its own sake. His taste was refined and highly cultivated, and he entered into the study of music as a science and its practice as an art - not merely intellectually, but with the entire force of his being. He detested the charlatan. He could not endure to witness the slaughter of the creations of genius so often effected by incompetent performers. He had not sympathy for the mere cold-blooded mechanical manipulator. To his cultivated ear the voice of music spoke to life and beauty, and his heart beat responsive to its utterances. We refer to him now, as he was before the death of his accomplished wife, which occurred December 5th 1867. Since that event Mr. Loder has been the shadow of his former self. He has now “joined the great majority”. We here repeat the sketch of his great professional career, which we published about a month ago as follows: “Mr. Loder was born in 1816, and is the brother of a famous lady formerly known in England as Kate Loder, the eminent pianist; but now the wife of Sir Henry Thompson. Mr. Loder was the chosen accompanist of Madame Bishop in her ballads at Julien’s [recte Jullien’s] concerts many years ago. He also conducted her and Bochsa in New York at the entertainments entitled “Boscha’s voyage Musicale”. At these concerts Madame Bishop was the principal vocalist, Boscha the harpist, and there was a full band and chorus. At San Francisco Mr. Loder was conductor of the opera company with which Miss Catherine Hayes and Miss Thillon were associated. Subsequently he had been professionally engaged in the Australian colonies, where his abilities are appreciated by those best able to form an opinion upon the subject.” We may add that Mr. Loder was one of the originators of the Musical Society of London [?] and subsequently the conductor to the New York Philharmonic Society. We understand he has no relations in the colonies, and that the sister already mentioned is his only surviving relative.“

Edward Loder’s opera Giselle, or The Night Dancers, was first produced in London in 1846, and in Sydney at the Royal Victoria, by the Howsons, Guerin, Ximenes, and Carandini, in November 1847. A duet from it, Peace to the Dead, was also performed separately in Australia. References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (4 February 1847), 1:; “THE DRAMA”, Bell’s Life in Sydney (20 November 1847), 2:

References: “SAN FRANCISCO”, The Musical World (3 July 1853), 466-67:; “ARRIVALS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (9 July 1856), 4:; “CLASSICAL MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (12 August 1856), 4:; [Advertisement], Empire (16 August 1856), 6:; “ENGLISH OPERA HOUSE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (25 August 1856), 4:; “MISKA HAUSER’S CONCERT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 August 1856), 5:; [Advertisement], Empire (1 August 1856), 1:; “MISKA HAUSER”, Dwight‘s Journal of Music (24 January 1857), 135:; [Advertisement], The Courier (29 January 1857), 2:; [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Mercury (4 February 1857), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (24 August 1857), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (8 August 1857), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (18 August 1857), 1:; “GRAND ORATORIO”, The Sydney Morning Herald (20 August 1857), 8:; “ROYAL VICTORIA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (29 August 1857), 8:; “THE DRAMA. THE ROYAL VICTORIA”, Bell‘s Life in Sydney (29 August 1857), 2:; “DEPARTURES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (19 September 1857), 4:; “DEPARTURES FOR ENGLAND”, The Sydney Morning Herald (10 October 1857), 10:; [Advertisement]: “THE SWEDISH NATIONAL SINGERS”, The Athenaeum (10 July 1858), 56:; “MADAME ANNA BISHOP’S CONCERT”, The Musical World (18 December 1858), 804:; “EXTER HALL-MADAME ANNA BISHOP’S CONCERT”, The Illustrated Magazine (25 January 1859), 52:; “LYCEUM”, The Players (10 November 1860), 149:; [2 advertisements], The Musical World (31 August 1861), 560:; “ARRIVED, JAN.17”, The Argus (18 January 1862), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (31 January 1862), 8:; [News], The Argus (3 February 1862), 4:; Words of the songs and description of the personations, in the new and original entertainment, The Old House at Home: written and composed by Frank Ibberson Jervis and George Loder (Melbourne: W. H. Williams, Printer, [1862?]):; [News], The Argus (3 February 1862), 5:; “NEWS AND NOTES”, The Star (28 February 1862), 2:; [Advertisement], The Courier (14 August 1863), 1:; “SOIREE MUSICALE”, South Australian Register (16 April 1867), 2:; [News], The Argus (16 July 1868), 4:; “DEATH OF MRS. GEORGE LODER”, South Australian Register (6 December 1867), 2:; “SOUTH AUSTRALIA: FUNERAL OF THE LATE MR. G. LODER”, The Mercury (28 July 1868), 3:; “OBITUARY”, South Australian Register (18 July 1868), 6:; “IN MEMORIAM. GEORGE LODER”, South Australian Register (21 July 1868), 2:; “GEORGE LODER. DIED 15TH JULY, 1868”, South Australian Register (23 July 1868), 2:

Resources: Loder, George, Dictionary of National Biography (1893); Loder, George (1816-1868), Obituaries Australia; Vera Brosdky Lawrence, Strong on music: the New York music scene, Vol.1  (many refrences)

 Thanks: I’d like to acknowledge the excellent work of family historian Lorna Cowan, some of whose findings on Loder can be seen at,_George_(DNB00) , and, while the link holds good, at

Documented colonial works:
- The Sea Nymph (“New Arietta, composed for MADAME ANNA BISHOP […] with Obligato Accompaniment for two Flutes”): [Advertisement], South Australian Register (8 December 1856), 1:; [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Mercury (4 February 1857), 2:
- The Lady Killer, or The Devil in Sydney (“new local extravaganza”, words: James Simmonds): [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (8 August 1857), 1:; “THE DRAMA. THE ROYAL VICTORIA”, Bell’s Life in Sydney (29 August 1857), 2:
- Regina apostolorum (“offertor[i]um quartette”; “motette in canone”): [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (8 August 1857), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (18 August 1857), 1:
- The Matin Call (Spanish Aria): [Advertisement], The Argus (7 July 1862), 8:; “THE MELBOURNE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY: II”, The Argus (13 January 1879), 6: [ [recte, concert was on 8 July 1862]
- Solo for bass-clarionette (composed expressly for Herr Lundberg): [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 May 1865), 1:
- The Return of Spring (Arietta for the Pianoforte), from The Illustrated Melbourne Post ((18 February 1866)
- Our United Fatherland (Grand March for full orchestra) “Composed expressly for this occasion”: [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (6 December 1866), 1: h
- The Prince Alfred Waltz (Adelaide: G. H. Egremont Gee, 1867): [News], The Argus (4 November 1867), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (6 November 1867), 1: h
- Oh! Boyhood’s Days (“as sung by T. H. Rainford”, of the Weston and Hussey’s Minstrels) (Melbourne: W. H. Glen, [1868?])



LOGAN, Maria (Mrs. C. D.) (Mary ELLARD)
Pianist, professor of music, composer
Born Dublin, 1808 (daughter of Ann and Andrew ELLARD)
Arrived Hobart, 15 February 1835 (per Sarah)
Arrived Sydney, 1842
Died Sydney, 25 December 1886, aged 78

LOGAN, Charles David (C. D.)
? Transcriber of Indigenous song

Summary: Maria Logan was a daughter of Dublin music-seller Andrew ELLARD and his first wife Ann, a sister of Francis ELLARD of Sydney, and a first cousin of William Vincent WALLACE and Eliza BUSHELLE. Charles Logan (who had witnessed Andrew Ellards second marriage), had organised two shiploads of female emigrants from Dublin, and the Logans accompanied the first of these, on the Sarah, to Hobart, arriving there on 15 February 1835. Charles founded a “Hobart Town Public Library”, while Mary/Maria, as “Mrs. C. D. Logan”, established herself as a concert performer and teacher, of “Pianoforte and Singing, combining the principles of Thorough Bass and Composition“. According to her later pupil, the singer Lucy CHAMBERS, Logan had herself been a pupil in Dublin of John Bernard Logier. This German-born pianist, military bandmaster, composer, and theorist was author of an innovative thorough-bass text book (1818), and a surprisingly forward looking treatise on practical composition. More relevant perhaps, Logier also shared Dublin premises with the Ellards. Late in 1835, Logan collaborated with her cousin Vincent Wallace in his Hobart appearances, and by the time she gave her last Hobart concert in June 1842, the reviewer of The Courier had concluded that: “[…] in addition to the possession of talent in herself, she has also the happy method of imparting it to so many of her pupils, we have no hesitation in pronouncing her intended departure from these shores as a loss to the rising generation on this side of the island.” Logan also “presided at the seraphine” at the consecration of St. George‘s Church, Battery Point, in 1838, the instrument built by her father in Dublin, as is recorded not only in fact, but in fiction (in the title story to English novelist Penelope Fitzgerald‘s book of short stories, The Means of Escape). One very important musical record of the Logan’s activities in Hobart survives, in two manuscript copies of a Song of the Aborigines of Van Diemen’s Land (arranged by Mrs. Logan) (see details below). The latter copy was once in the possession of one William Robinson, plausibly via George Augustus Robinson, whose journal for Sunday 22 October 1836 records: “Spent the evening at Logan’s in Macquarie Street. Mr. Logan set to music a song of the aborigines, POPELLER etc., the first ever attempted. Spoke of Dr R; censured Mrs. Jackson, Mrs. Ross, Mrs. Lempriere.” Referencing Alice Moyle, in the notes to his edition of the journal Brian Plomley registered Maria’s professional musical activities and her published song (see below), and with the ascription on the manuscripts in mind, speculated that she “may also have been the one who transcribed the aboriginal song, Popeller, and not her husband.” Equally possible, however, is that Charles did indeed transcribe the melody, and his wife made the arrangements.

A second musical work, but now lost, was a song, The vow that’s breathed in solitude, published in Hobart in 1839, “the music arranged by Mrs. Logan” to words by Robert Stewart, author previously of the words to a Vincent Wallace song dedicated to the self-same Mrs. Logan. The Hobart Town Courier greeted it as the “first Van Diemen‘s Land melody” (if certainly not the first colonial composition, it was the first in print): “A song, entitled The vow that‘s breathed in solitude—the words by Mr. Stewart, the music arranged by Mrs. Logan—has been forwarded to us, and, according to our judgment, affords a very creditable specimen of ‘immortal music married unto verse’. This is the first Van Diemen‘s Land melody it has been our fortune to encounter, and is well worthy of being hailed by all the lovers of song and of Tasmania, with all the gladness and rejoicing of a new birth“. Meanwhile, The Hobart Town Advertiser advised: “We must not pass lightly by the music of Mrs. Logan, a lady who has the merit of being the first musical compositor in the colony.” Charles recently bankrupted, the Logans moved to Sydney (with five children, and a servant), and Maria was organist of St. Andrew‘s Church and teaching music in a private lady‘s academy by the end of 1842.

1894: LOGAN MEMORIAL FUND. Some years ago a meeting was called of the former pupils of the late Mrs. C. D. Logan with the object of perpetuating her memory in some suitable way. Miss Maud Hogarth-Pringle, of Parramatta, organised the movement, with the result that a small fund has just been placed in the hands of the Primate, to be expended in the presentation of two yearly prizes for music to the choristers of St Andrew's Cathedral. Mrs. Logan was for long identified with the musical progress of the colony in its ealier days. Originally this lady arrived at Hobart in the year 1835 by the immigrant ship Sarah, of which her husband was superintendent. Mrs. Logan remained in the Tasmanian capital until 1842, and soon became one of the principal resident teachers of music—on the “Logerian system”. She officiated first as organist of St. David's Church (where the Cathedral now stands), and later as honorary organist of St. Georges Church, Battery Point. In February, 1842, Mrs. Logan arrived in Sydney, was appointed organist of St. Andrew’s pro-Cathedral, and trained the choir. The Rev. Mr. Watson was then incumbent. Mrs. Logan continued to officiate when well advanced in years, during Canon O’Reilly’s time. Altogether Mrs. Logan carried on her valuable work as a teacher dining a period of 46 years, numbering amongst her pupils the daughters of the Hon. Mrs. Keith Stewart (daughter of Governor Fitzroy), of Sir Alfred Stephen, Sir Edward Deas-Thomsom, Sir Thomas Mitchell, the Right Hon. W. B. Dalley, Mr. W. C. Wentworth, Sir Jame Martin, Archdeacon Cowper, Sir Roger Therry, the Hons. Robert Campbell and Robert Fitzgerald, Mr. Alexander Gordon, Mr. James K. Fairfax, and many other well-known Australian families. Mrs. Logan, who passed away on Christmas Day, 1886, was a first cousin of Vincent Wallace, the eminent composer.

Song of the Aborigines of Van Diemen’s Land arranged by Mrs. Logan: page 1 (; page 2: (
Song of the Aborigines arranged by Mrs. Logan (According to the donor, it could date back to 1850 and might have been copied by his mother (nee Wilkinson) at Bothwell):

Bibliography: Alice Moyle, Tasmanian music, an impasse?, edited by W.F. Ellis, in records of the Queen Victoria Museum (Launceston: Museum Committee, Launceston City Council, 1968);; N. J. B. Plomley (ed.), Weep in silence: a history of the Flinders Island Aboriginal settlement with the Flinders Island Journal of George Augustus Robinson, 1835-1839 (Hobart: Blubber Head Press , 1987), 391, 657 note;; A. J. Hammerton, “‘Without Natural Protectors’: Female Immigration to Australia, 1832-36,” Historical Studies 16/65 (1975), 539-66 (re Charles Logan 549-550, 563)

References: “TRADE AND SHIPPING”, The Hobart Town Courier (20 February 1835), 3: ; [News], The Hobart Town Courier (27 March 1835), 2:;  [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (12 June 1835), 3:; [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (4 August 1837), 1:; “Domestic Intelligence“, Colonial Times (29 May 1838), 7:; [News], The Hobart Town Courier (25 May 1838), 2:; [News], The Hobart Town Courier (1 June 1838), 3:; [News], The Hobart Town Courier (26 April 1839), 2: ; The Hobart Town Advertiser (10 May 1839); [Editorial], The Hobart Town Courier (17 April 1840), 4:; [News], The Hobart Town Courier (26 April 1839), 2:; “MRS. LOGAN‘S CONCERT”, The Courier (10 June 1842), 2:; “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE: ARRIVALS“, The Sydney Herald (26 July 1842), 2:; “MRS. LOGAN”, The Sydney Morning Herald (9 January 1864), 4:; “Madame Lucy Chambers”, The Argus (25 November 1884), 7:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (28 December 1886), 1:; [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (4 July 1888), 9:; “LOGAN MEMORIAL FUND”, The Sydney Morning Herald (21 February 1894), 6:



Professor of music, languages and accomplishments, composer, convicted forger
Active Sydney, by 1855

1856: NEW MUSIC. Composition by Monsieur de Lolle, on SALE at Mr. SANDON’S house, George-street.

 1872: Emile de Lolle was found guilty of forging and uttering, and was sentenced to be imprisoned for two years.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (24 November 1855) 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (4 January 1856), 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (29 September 1856), 1:; “ANOTHER ACCIDENT IN THE SOUTH HEAD ROAD”, Empire (22 March 1858), 5: ttp://; “CENTRAL POLICE COURT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 June 1858), 3:; “POLICE GLEANINGS”, Bell’s Life in Sydney (15 April 1865), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 February 1866), 4:; “CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 June 1872), 2:; “CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT [Sydney]”, The Maitland Mercury (17 August 1872), 5:




LONCHAMP, Jean Francois
Professor of the Flute (German and patent Boehm, pupil of Eugene Walckiers), draper
Active Sydney, by August 1850; until after April 1854

Summary: A pupil of Eugène Walckiers (1793-1866), Lonchamp first played in public in late 1850, on a Boehm flute playing music by Jean Louis Tulou (1786-1865). He was an associate of the MARSH brothers, and advertised for sale a formidable range of printed music. As a child James WALKER (2) was one of his flute pupils.

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (21 August 1850), 1: ; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (16 September 1850), 1: ; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 December 1850), 3: ; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (19 December 1850), 3: ; “LAW INTELLIGENCE”, Empire (16 May 1851), 2: ; “LAW INTELLIGENCE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (28 June 1851), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (31 July 1852), 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (31 March 1853), 1s:; “ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (21 June 1853), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (29 April 1854), 2: ; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (10 June 1854), 5:; “A GRAND OLD MUSICIAN”, The Brisbane Courier (16 March 1926), 11:




Active Hobart, 1834

Summary: At Deane's Oratorio in Hobart in March 1834: “Mrs. Davis’s best performance was Let the bright Seraphim, with trumpet obligato performance of Mr. Long”. This is perhaps the first unequivocal reference to a performance on a trumpet in Australia.

References:  [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (7 March 1834), 3:; “Domestic Intelligence”, The Hobart Town Magazine 3 (1834), 53:



LONGFIELD, Elizabeth Mary (DRANE)
Composer, piano teacher
Active Maitland, NSW, by 1862
Died Cheltenham, NSW, 28 April 1917, aged 87

References: “PATRIOTIC FUND”, The Sydney Morning Herald (16 March 1855), 8: “MARRIAGES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (28 September 1858), 1:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (19 July 1862), 1:; [Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury (19 August 1862), 1:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 July 1868), 4:; “CONCERT”, Queanbeyan Age (28 October 1869), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (14 May 1873), 8: ttp://; [News], The Sydney Morning Herald (2 October 1878), 5:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (29 May 1874), 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (12 October 1878), 17:; “NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (3 July 1897), 9:; “DEATHS”, The Sydney Morning Herald (30 April 1917), 6:

Published works:
Air Anglais varie (for piano) ([Sydney: Elvy & Co., 1868])
Pearl Quadrilles ([Sydney: Elvy & Co., 1874])
The A.S.N. Galop (composed and dedicated to Captn. Trouton and the officers of the A.S.N. [Australian Steamship Navigation] company by Elizabeth Longfield) (Sydney: Elvy &​ Co., [1878]) [concluded with the air “Home, Sweet Home”]
Once, and Again (song arranged for one or two voices, composed and dedicated to her sisters) (Sydney: Elvy &​ Co., [1878])
Record Reign March (for piano) (Sydney: Elvy &​ Co., [1897]) [opens with festival chimes and later introduces the air of “Home Sweet Home”]



LORD, Ebenezer
Contrabass player, violinist, vocalist
Arrived Melbourne, February 1850 (per Clifton)

Summary: Beedell reasonably suggests that Lord was Ebenezer Lord, who arrived Melbourne on the Clifton with Sara Flower in February 1850. “A contra-bass from the Theatres Royal London”, also a violinist, Lord appeared in concerts for Thomas Reed between February and May 1850, and again in January 1851 as a vocalist in several glees.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (28 February 1850), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (4 March 1850), 2:; [Advertisement], The Argus (8 March 1850), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (30 May 1850), 3:; “To the Editor […] THE CONCERT AND THE CRITICS”, The Argus (24 December 1850), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (8 January 1851), 3:

Bibliography: Ann V. Beedell, Terminal silence: Sara Flower and the diva enigma (Ph.D thesis, Griffith University, 1999), 157:



LORD, Edward, junior
Active Sydney, 1868

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (22 February 1868), 6:

Work: Royal Sailor Waltzes (by the composer Edward Lord, Jnr) (Sydney: Reading and Wellbank, [1868])



Vocalist, concertina player, composer, pianist (from the Académie Imperiale de Musique, St. Petersburg)
Active Grafton, NSW, by April 1862
Departed Sydney, 22 June 1864 (per Northam, for Point de Galle)

Grafton April 1862: Mr. Lortsch's concert came off on Saturday last, at the School of Arts, and the audience, although not so numerous as we had expected, appeared thoroughly to appreciate the efforts of the several performers. Mr. Lortsch's solos on the pianoforte fully exhibited his extraordinary command over that instrument; and his rendering of Beethoven's and Mendelsohn's music, on the concertina, cannot but be considered as perfect.

References: [Advertisement], Clarence and Richmond Examiner (8 April 1862), 3:; “CONCERT AT THE SCHOOL OF ARTS”, Clarence and Richmond Examiner (8 April 1862), 2:; [News], Süd Australische Zeitung (3 September 1862), 2:; [Advertisement], Clarence and Richmond Examiner (21 October 1862), 3:; “CONCERT”, Clarence and Richmond Examiner (4 November 1862), 2:; [Advertisement], Clarence and Richmond Examiner (14 April 1863), 1:; “THE TYROLESE MINSTRELS”, The Maitland Mercury (2 July 1863), 3:; “GRAFTON POLICE COURT”, Clarence and Richmond Examiner (14 July 1863), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (8 August 1863), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (15 August 1863), 12:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 October 1863), 1:; “CLEARANCES”, Empire (23 June 1864), 4:



LOUDIN, F. J. (Frederick Jeremiah)
Bass vocalist, director (Fisk Jubilee Singers)
Born Charleston, Ohio, USA, 1836 (free)
Arrived Melbourne, May 1886 (per R.M.S. Orient)
Departed Adelaide, October 1889 (per R.M.S Orizaba, for Bombay)
Died Ravenna, Ohio, 3 November 1904

June 1886: Never before has the Prahran Town Hall proved itself so unsuitable for the requirements of the city than it did on Monday evening, when the above singers gave one of their famous concerts […] the hall was packed to its utmost capacity, scarcely standing room being available, and hundreds had to be refused admission. All this proves the popularity which the Fisk Jubilee singers have attained during their short sojourn here, their success being unprecedented in the history of the colony. The first thing one notices when this band of eleven “sweet singers” ascends the stage, is the absence of all the usual palaver and nonsense we are accustomed to see when professionals, and at times even amateurs, present themselves before us. Unaided by any meretricious stage effects, this little band of negroes holds the vast attendance spell-bound […] We were so entranced with each of the performers that we scarcely like to refer to any one in particular. We may, however, refer to Mr. Loudin, the director, who is a basso profundo of wonderful power. Then, too, he has a winning and unaffected manner, and on Monday night he entirely won the hearts of the fair sex present. It is hoped he is not a married man.

References: “ARRIVAL OF THE ENGLISH MAIL”, The Sydney Morning Herald (13 May 1886), 7:; “THE FISK JUBILEE SINGERS”, The Telegraph, St. Kilda, Prahran and South Yarra Guardian (26 June 1886), 5:; “THE FISK JUBILEE SINGERS”, Bendigo Advertiser (20 August 1886), 3:; “R.M.S. ORIZABA”, The Sydney Morning Herald (19 October 1889), 12:

Resources:; Lynn Abbott and Doug Seroff, Out of sight: the rise of African American popular music, 1889-1895 (University Press of Mississippi, 2003):



LOUEDIN, Adolphus
Professor of the Cornet-a-piston
Active Sydney, March-April 1854

References: [Advertisement], Empire (20 March 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (31 March 1854), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 April 1854), 1:



LOUISE, Madame (? Mrs. JAMES)
Dancer, vocalist, actor (Royal Victoria Theatre)
Arrived Sydney, 21 October 1842 (per Trial, from Plymouth, 18 May, via Rio De Janeiro)

1842: Two more of the performers, a lady and a gentleman, who arrived in the Trial, made their appearance at the Theatre on Monday evening [...] The lady, Madame Louise! i is, so far as could be judged from a first appearance, an excellent performer; her appearance ia prepossessing, her voice good, and her acting natural, and she bids fair to be exceedingly popular. 

References: “ARRIVALS”, Australasian Chronicle (22 October 1842), 3:; “ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (27 October 1842), 2:; “THEATRE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (2 November 1842), 2:; [Advertisement], Australasian Chronicle (25 March 1843), 3:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (26 February 1851), 1:; ? [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (15 February 1859), 1:



LOVE, Joseph Lester
Blind fiddler
Born Paramatta, 1793
Buried Sydney, 22 October 1836

Summary: From The Australian in July 1833:

MUSIC. Joe Love, the celebrated blind fiddler, is the first Australian Musician who ever learned to play on the violin. Although quite blind, he is considered one of the best musicians in the Colony.

From an excellent online family history compiled by John O’Brien:

[Son of John Love, a soldier in the NSW Corps]  Joseph Lester Love was born 1793 at Parramatta, NSW. With thanks to researcher, Bev Johnston, I have the following information: Born blind, in 1821 he was an object of charity. On list of all person victualled from H.M. Magazines (reel 6016.4/5781.p.68). On April, 1823 he applied for permission to play the violin in public (reel 6010. 4/3508 p 910. On April, 26th and May 5th he applied for permission to marry (reel 6006. 4/3498 p 206). […] Joseph was buried 22.10.1836 St. James Sydney.

However, Love lived long enough to witness the arrival of Vincent Wallace, “the Australian Paganini” in Sydney early in 1836. In June, the press reported this incident:

A son of the blind fiddler (Joe Love) some few days since went into the shop of a music seller to purchase a few strings of cat-gut for his parents fiddle. The vender of music knowing the boy was in his line, asked him whether he had heard the performance of Mr. Wallace, and what he thought of it — to which the urchin replied “that for a Waltz or Quadrille or anything in that 'ore way, Wallace was very well, but let him try father at a hornpipe or a jig, lad,” said he with a knowing look and shrug of his shoulders, “and then you'll see which can play best.”

References: “MUSIC”, The Australian (19 July 1833), 3:; The Sydney Herald (8 August 1833), 3:; “SUPREME COURT”, The Australian (12 May 1835), 3:; “Joe Love and the Australian Paganini”, The Australian (14 June 1836), 2:




LOVEDAY, Henry William
Tuner and repairer of Pianofortes, quadrille pianist, arranger
Active Hobart, by August 1856
Died Redfern, Sydney, 1 October 1899, aged 63

Summary: According to a later (August 1859) report, Loveday served his apprenticeship with Broadwood of London, and was engaged by J. A. Huxtable on a visit to London to come to Hobart as a “practical pianoforte maker and tuner for this colony”. Huxtable had first advertised Loveday’s services in August 1856. A Hobart advertisement in January 1859 prints approving references from Tapfield and bandmaster Douglas Callen. However, in February he announced his relocation to Launceston, where in May and June he was declared insolvent with “no assets”. Having moved to Melbourne, from April to June 1860 he was in partnership with Robert Blackburn as “Blackburn, Loveday and Co.”, offering “FIVE SHILLINGS—PIANOFORTE TUNING”. He was in Sydney advertising as a quadrille pianist in 1866, and in 1869, probably to publicise his services as a tuner, he released the musical prints below.

References: [Advertisement], The Courier (2 August 1856), 3:; [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Mercury (19 October 1857), 1:; [Advertisement], The Hobart Town Daily Mercury (5 January 1859), 4:; “MUSIC”, Launceston Examiner (15 February 1859), 2:; “Piano Forte Tuning”, The Cornwall Chronicle (16 February 1859), 5:; [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (7 May 1859), 5:; “NEW INSOLVENTS DURING THE MONTH”, Launceston Examiner (11 June 1859), 2:; “MUSICAL”, Launceston Examiner (9 August 1859), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 April 1860), 7:; [Advertisement], The Argus (4 June 1860), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (30 June 1860), 8:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (11 August 1866), 1:; “TOMMY DODD GALOP”, The Sydney Morning Herald (21 August 1869), 6:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (28 August 1869), 4:; [Advertisement], Empire (8 December 1869), 1:; “PIANOFORTE MANUFACTURE IN BRISBANE”, Warwick Examiner and Times (29 April 1876), 1s:; “FURNITURE”, The Queenslander (2 September 1876), 11:; “Deaths”, The Sydney Morning Herald (5 October 1899), 1:; “PROBATES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (8 November 1899), 4:

Published works: Tommy Dodd Galop (Second edition: Sydney: n.p., [….]); Tommy Dodd Galop (Twelfth edition; founded upon the popular songs Tommy Dodd and Up in a Balloon, arranged by H. W. Loveday, Pianoforte Tuner, &c) (Second edition: Sydney: n.p., [….]); Flying Squadron Galop (by H. W. Loveday, Pianoforte Tuner, &c) (Sydney: n.p., [….])



LOWE, Mrs. Charles
Vocalist, harpist
Died SA, 31 August 1893, aged 66

LOWE, Charles

April 1864: During the evening Mrs. C. Lowe discoursed some sweet and stirring music upon the harp— an instrument which that lady seems perfectly to understand. A beautiful piece was sung by Mrs. Lowe, with harp accompaniment entitled “The harp restrung at Shakspeare’s grave,” which met with deserved applause. April 1866: The Welsh air — “Ar hyd nos,” followed by the French air — “Ah vous dirai je maman,” were then played on the harp by Mrs. Lowe, who afterwards sang—“Willie, we have missed you,” and played Boscha’s French march and “ Non piu andrai” (Figaro). A string giving way, she resorted to the piano, singing to that accompaniment “Trab, Trab,” “Figlia de Regimento,” and lastly, No. 1 of “The Songs of the Goolwa Troop,” the words by Mr. Lowe. The song, set to music, adapted and arranged from Norma, ran as follows : “To the charge!  the trumpets sound, / Forth our troopers swiftly bound […].”

References: “POET ELLIOT”, South Australian Register (29 April 1864), 3:; “PORT ELLIOT, GOOLWA, AND ENCOUNTER BAY—COMMEMORATION OF THE TERCENTENARY OF THE BIRTH OF SHAKESPEARE”, The South Australian Advertiser (6 May 1864), 3:; “GOOLWA”, South Australian Register (4 May 1864), 3:; “GOOLWA CAVALRY”, The South Australian Advertiser (24 February 1866), 7:; “THE CAVALRY FETE AT HIGGINSBROOK”, South Australian Weekly Chronicle (7 April 1866), 2:; “DEATHS”, South Australian Register (1 September 1893), 4:



LOWE, Robert
Songwriter, journalist, newspaper editor (The Atlas)
Born Bingham, Notts., England, 4 December 1811
Arrived Sydney, 8 October 1842 (per Aden, from London, 8 June)
Departed Sydney, 27 January 1850 (per Kate, for England)
Died Warlingham, Surrey, England, 27 July 1892

Images: “The Orator”, By Charles Rodius; engraved by William Baker:  

References: “ARRIVALS”, Australasian Chronicle (11 October 1842), 3:; “THE ORGAN OF THE OPPOSITION”, The Australian (5 December 1844), 2:; “CLEARANCES”, The Sydney Morning Herald (26 January 1850), 2:; “THE LATE LORD SHERBROOKE”, The Sydney Morning Herald (29 July 1892), 3:; “The Old Bush Songs”, Northern Star (28 April 1906), 6:; “Some Early Colonial Journalism”, The Brisbane Courier (26 November 1921), 4:

Songs: “SONG OF THE SQUATTERS (From the Atlas). The Commissioner bet me a pony”, Geelong Advertiser (5 March 1845), 3:; “The Bushman to his bride: The gum has no shade”, in Gallops and gossips in the bush of Australia, or, Passages in the life of Alfred Barnard (1854), 33:; Lord Sherbrooke, Poems of a life (London: Legan Paul, Trench , & Co., 1885): [Burning Philanthropy; District Councils, Or The Brazen Yoke; Songs of the Squatters Nos.1-4]; “SONG OF THE SQUATTER”, The Queenslander (27 October 1894), 788:

Resources: R. L. Knight, Lowe, Robert (1811-1892), Australian Dictionary of Biography 2 (1967);;



LOWER, Frederick W.
Songwriter, composer, bootmaker
Arrived Adelaide, 10 October 1849 (per Cheapside, from London)
Died Hyde Park, SA, 26 December 1883, aged 60

References: “ARRIVED”, South Australian Register (13 October 1849), 3:; [Advertisement], South Australian Register (26 May 1855), 3:; “DEATHS”, The South Australian Advertiser (27 December 1883), 4:; “THE LATE MR. F. W. LOWER”, South Australian Register (27 December 1883), 4:

Musical work: The Old Gum Tree (By F. W. Lower) (The Adelaide Musical Herald, 27 March 1863, 52-53)



LOYAU, George Etienne (pseud: George Chanson)
Songwriter, journalist, historian
Born London, 15 April 1835
Arrived Sydney, 4 August 1853 (per Investigator, from London)
Died Bundaberg, QLD, 23 April 1898

References: “THE COUNTRY JOURNALIST”, Illustrated Sydney News (26 October 1872), 11:; “COMPLIMENTARY CONCERT”, Bunyip (28 November 1879), 3:; “THE LATE MR. GEORGE E. LOYAU. TO THE EDITOR”, The Advertiser (23 June 1898), 7:

Songs: The Sydney Songster (: a collection of new original, local, and comic songs by George Chanson) (Sydney: D. Roberts, [1860]):; “NEW SONG. THE CABLE MESSAGE”, Bathurst Free Press (11 December 1872), 4:

Writings: The personal adventures of George E. Loyau (Adelaide: L. Henn and Co., 1883);; Notable South Australians (Adelaide: G. E. Loyau, 1885): [included short biographies of several musicians]

Resources: J. H. Love, Loyau, George Ettienne (1835-1898), Australian Dictionary of Biography 5 (1974);; Hugh Anderson, George Loyau: the man who wrote bush ballads (Melbourne: Red Rooster, 1991):



LUBESKI, Aloes (? Alves)
Professor of music, schoolmaster
Active Parramatta, 1842

References: “NEW INSOLVENTS”, The Sydney Herald (10 March 1842), 2:



Baritone vocalist
Born Milan, ?1841/2
Arrived Melbourne, November 1875 (per R.M.S. China, from Galle)
Died Christchurch, NZ, 9 February 1887, aged 45

Melbourne, January 1876: Signor Luisetti made a first appearance on this occasion, and displayed the possession of a fine baritone voice, which be uses in a manner quite consistent with musical good taste.

Obituary (NZ): Signor Pietro Luisetti, well known in Australia and New Zealand as an opera singer, died at Christchurch on Sunday morning after a long illness. The Lyttelton Times says:—He was born at Milan, where his family, we believe, were bankers, and had passed a somewhat adventurous life. As a young man he went to China, and was engaged in the silk trade, selecting cocoons and grain for sending to Italy. On coming to New Zealand he joined the unfortunate party of settlers who tried to make a home at Jackson’s Bay, and met with the fate that was to be anticipated on the inhospitable shores of that wild West Coast. On one occasion Signor Luisetti was lost in the bush for 13 days, his only means of sustenance during that period—besides the scanty resources of our native forest—being a cake and some tobacco. As a member of an opera company organised by M. Simonsen he played in Australia, and went on a tour to India. Afterwards he was associated with Miss Emily Melville. His qualifications as a singer and master had been gained by five years’ hard study at La Scala. Signor Luisetti leaves a wife and children but slenderly provided for. He was 45 years of age.

References: “SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE”, South Australian Register (12 November 1875), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (4 December 1875), 12:; “MELBOURNE GERMAN LIEDERTAFEL”, The Argus (12 January 1876), 10:; “MELBOURNE GERMAN LIEDERTAFEL”, The Argus (15 February 1876), 7:; “THE DE MUSKA CONCERTS”, The Mercury (22 December 1876), 2:; [News], Otago Daily Times (12 January 1887), 2:; “SIGNOR PIETRO LUISETTI”, Bathurst Free Press (17 February 1887), 3:



LUNDBERG,  J. William
Clarionettist, clarinettist
Active Melbourne, 1854-1888

Summary: According to an advertisement in the Argus seeking  information on his whereabouts, one Casper Lundberg, the cook of the Swedish Brig Wanga disappeared while on shore leave in Melbourne on 10 October 1854. On 21 October, a Herr Lundberg, and a Herr Berg, a trombonist, both “from the King’s Theatre Stockholm” appeared with the Nelson Family at the Queen’s Theatre. Both then appeared again there a few days later, along with Winterbottom, to play for Catherine Hayes and Lewis Lavenu, when it was reported: “An instrumental duet, for clarionet and valve trombone, given by Herrn Berg and Lundberg, two Swedish musicians, was much applauded, although it appeared somewhat slow amongst the more exciting performances of the evening”. Lundberg played a clarinet obligato to Anna Bishop in July 1856, and both Berg and Lundberg were billed again with Wintebottom’s Band in Melbourne in September 1859. “One William Lundberg, a musician, residing in Flinders-lane” was victim of a fraud in 1860. Lundberg remained a part of the Melbourne musical establishment into the late 1880s, playing under Frederick Cowen in the 1888 Centenary Exhibition Orchestra.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (13 October 1854), 1: ; [Advertisement], The Argus (21 October 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (26 October 1854), 8:; “QUEEN’S THEATRE—MISS CATHERINE HAYES”, The Argus (30 October 1854), 5:; “MISS HAYES’S SECOND CONCERT”, The Argus (1 November 1854), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (11 November 1854), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (9 July 1855), 8:; “THEATRE ROYAL”, The Argus (30 July 1855), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (7 July 1856), 8:; “MELBOURNE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY’S CONCERT [from Melbourne Herald]”, The Cornwall Chronicle (2 August 1856), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (29 September 1859), 8:; “CHARGE OF FRAUD AGAINST THE AGENT OF A MINING COMPANY”, The Argus (23 February 1860), 5:; [Advertisement], The Argus (22 April 1862), 8:; “MELBOURNE POPULAR CONCERTS”, The Argus (12 June 1884), 7:; “EXHIBITION NOTES”, The Argus (16 June 1888), 13:; “EXHIBITION NOTES”, The Argus (21 June 1888), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (5 February 1891), 8:



LUNN, Richard
Side-drummer (99th Regiment)
Regiment active Australia, 1843-56

References: “THE BAND OF THE 99TH”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 September 1844), 3:; [Advertisement], The Australian (29 November 1845), 1:



LUNT, George
Active Melbourne, December 1852

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (10 December 1852), 5:



Active Sydney, 1842

References: [Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (24 May 1842), 3:



LYON, William Charles
Professor of Singing, Pianoforte, and Harmony
Active Melbourne, by December 1852
Died Melbourne, 18 July 1853, aged 27

Summary: Billed as director of “THE CITY OF LONDON GLEE AND MADRIGAL UNION”, at their inaugural Melbourne concert in December 1852, Lyon was a “Professor of the Royal Academy of Music, and late Vicar Choral of St Paul’s Cathedral and Westminster Abbey”. Brother of Edgar Ray, he died in July 1853.

References: [Advertisement], The Argus (4 December 1852), 1:; [Advertisement], The Argus (13 December 1852), 3:; [Advertisement], The Argus (15 January 1853), 5:; “DIED”, The Argus (22 July 1853), 4:



LYONS, Annie (Mrs. H. P. LYONS)
Vocalist, dancer, actor
Died South Melbourne, 27 June 1909, aged 69

LYONS, H. P. (Harry; Henry Percival)
Theatrical and musical agent
Active by 1861
Died Melbourne, 28 June 1913, aged 71

References: [Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (21 December 1861), 2:; “LYCEUM THEATRE”, Bendigo Advertiser (25 May 1888), 2:; “PERSONAL”, The Argus (28 June 1909), 7:; “DEATH OF A VETERAN ACTRESS”, Barrier Miner (2 July 1909), 3:; “DEATHS”, The Argus (30 June 1913), 1:; “MR. HARRY LYONS DEAD”, Barrier Miner (3 July 1913), 8:; “In Stageland”, Evening News (19 July 1913), 6:



LYONS, John Christian
Harp player, chemist, journalist
Active Sydney, 1852; Beechworth district, VIC, 1857
Died Waterloo, NSW, 13 September 1874, aged 51

1857: The opening ball of the Hibernia Hotel came off last evening (Monday) in regular Hibernian style […] The orchestral arrangements were conducted by Mr. Griffith, cornet by Mr. Barlow, and the harp by Mr Lyons. Never did the fantastic toe so lightly fly through the graceful motions of the dance—nor ever was more justice done to the true character of “granuale.”

References: ‘CHEMISTRY”, Bathurst Free Press (17 March 1852), 2:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 July 1852), 1:; [Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (23 July 1853), 2:; “WOOLSHED”, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (21 October 1857), 2:; “To the Editor”, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (15 March 1858), 2:; “DEATHS”, Empire (15 September 1874), 1:

Publications: Australian Family Journal (edited by John Christian Lyons) (Sydney: Nos 1-4, 3-24 July 1852):



LYSTER, Frederick
Baritone vocalist, composer, conductor
Born 1832
Arrived Melbourne, 1 March 1861 (per Achilles, from San Francisco)
Departed Australia, after 1877 (for the United States)
Died ? USA, ?

See also his first wife Rosalie DURAND and second wife Minnie WALTON, both singers.


Summary: According to his 1882 article, Lyster had spent three years in the navy before embarking on his musical career.

References: [News], The Argus (2 March 1861), 5:; [News], The Argus (31 December 1877), 4:; [Advertisement], The Argus (18 January 1878), 8:; [Advertisement], The Argus (27 March 1877), 8:; “ROUND THE WORLD IN EIGHTY DAYS”, The Argus (29 March 1877), 5:; [Advertisement]: “NEW MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS”, The Argus (23 June 1877), 12:

Other references: “PHILADELPHIA. Drese’s National Theatre”, Dwight’s Music Journal (11 July 1857), 119:; [Advertisement], Daily Alta California (25 May 1859), 2:; Fred Lyster, “How an opera company worked its passage”, The New York Mirror: a reflex of the dramatic events of the week (23 December 1882), 1:; “The Original of Trilby. AN AUSTRALIAN STORY”, Poverty Bay Herald (28 October 1896), 4:

Works: Where the native roses blow (“song &​ dance  written &​ composed by Fred Lyster”) ( Australian Musical Magazine no. 11 [Melbourne and Sydney : Nicholson &​ Ascherberg, [1877]); Where the native roses blow (“song &​ dance  written &​ composed by Fred Lyster And sung by Miss Nellie McHenry, Salsbury’s Troubadours”) (Melbourne: Nicholson &​ Ascherberg, [1877]); I wandered by the brookside (“ballad, words by Lord Houghton; Fred Lyster”) (Australian Musical Magazine no. 11 [Melbourne and Sydney: Nicholson &​ Ascherberg, 1877]); Round the world in 80 day: potpourri (“arranged by Fred. Lyster & Tho's. Zeplin ; on airs wirtten for this ... drama by Giorza, Zeplin, Fred. Lyster, Mrs. W. S. Lyster, etc.”) (Melbourne: Pub. by permission of the Opera House Co. by Allan & Co. (Wilkies), [1877])

See also: Evolution (Philadelphia, 1885)



LYSTER, William Saurin
Opera director, entrepreneur
Born Dublin, 21 March 1828
Arrived Melbourne, 1 March 1861 (per Achilles, from San Francisco)
Died Melbourne, 27 November 1880


References: [News], The Argus (2 March 1861), 5:; “DEATH OF MR. W. S. LYSTER”, The Argus (29 November 1880), 6:

Web: Sally O’Neill and Thérèse Radic, Lyster, William Saurin (1828–1880), Australian Dictionary of Biography 5 (1974) 


Graeme Skinner © 2014